• J. A. SOAGA
  • B. O. OPEOLU
Keywords: ‘Adire’ textile, GDP, effluents, profitability, aquatic, environment


Clothing materials are one of the basic necessities of life.  Traditional clothing materials popularly called ‘adire’ thrive in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria due to the rising demand from an expanding population. This study revealed that over 70% of the producers are female with 23.3% male.  The ‘adire’ industry provides income and employment and thus contributes to the GDP of the nation.  Despite its significance, effluents from the industry contribute to environmental degradation and further affect the health of producers.  Health problems identified include skin rashes, ulceration, swelling, respiratory diseases and complications during delivery.  In addition, available water bodies serve as waste receptacle for effluents from the industry thereby disturbing aquatic biodiversity while those discharged on land affect the terrestrial diversity.  Despite the negative impact, the cost and return analysis of the industry showed profitability. At Itoku, a profit of N117,600 was made and at Asero, a profit of N110,700 was made from small enterprises producing ‘adire’ in the two locations. As a result, more people will be attracted into the industry.  In view of this, recommendations were made to protect man and the environment from effluents discharge of the indigenous industry.  Such recommendations include education, proper waste management and legislation to improve production methods and consequently enhance living standards.



Adams, S.D., Fusco, W., Kanzelmeyer, T. 1995. Ozone, Hydrogen peroxide/Ozone and UV/Ozone Treatment of Chronium and Copper complex Dyes. Decolouration and metal Release. Ozone Science Engineering, 17: 149-162.

Clarke, E.A., Anliker, R. 1980. Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 35: 5588-5620.

Foulds, J. 1990. Small Scale Textile dyeing and printing: A Handbook. Intermediate Technology Publication. U.K. P. 60

Groff, K.A. 1993. Textile Waste. Journal of water pollution control, 63: 459-462.

ILR, 1998. International Labour Review. Women in Management: Closer to breaking through the glass ceiling, 37:188.

Iloeje, N.P. 1978. A New Geography of Nigeria (Metricated Edition). Fletcher and Sons Ltd., Norwich, 191 P.

McEldowney, J.F., McEldowney, S. 1996. Environment and the Law. London Addison Wesley, Longman.

Neely, W.B. 1994. Introduction to chemical exposure and risk assessment. Lewis Publisher.

Oyesiku, O.O. 1992. Ogun State in Nigeria. In: Ogun State in maps edited by Onakomaya et al. Rex Charles Publication, Ibadan, Nigeria. 6 P.

Opeolu, B.O., Fadina, O.O. 2005. Women in indigenous textile (Adire) industry: Implications on health and environment. Proceedings of 11th Environment and Behaviour Association (EBAN) of Nigeria. P. 375-380.

Schumacher, E.F. 1973. Small is beautiful. Economics as if people mattered. Harper Tourch Books, London. 289 P.

Trivedi, R.C., Dubey, P.S. 1978. Evaluation of toxicity of some industrial wastes to fish by Bioassay. Journal of Environmental Pollution. Applied Science Publisher Limited, London.