INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROCESSED NIGERIAN Balanites aegyptiaca FRUITS ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES IN SWINE
Dietary effects of Nigerian processed Balanites aegyptiaca fruits on biochemical, haematological and physiological parameters in swine were investigated. Twenty weaner pigs were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments consisted of conventional diet, 20% Balanites fruits treated by boiling, roasting, boiling and roasting, boiling and fermenting, respectively, in a 4-week feeding trial. Results showed that the treated test feedstuff did not affect serum creatinine, blood glucose, serum protein albumin, respiratory rate and pulse rate, or the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p 0.05) but affected (p <0.05) those of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, urine urea or urine creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP). The packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and the white blood cells (WBC) differential counts such as neutrophils, monocytes were similar (p>0.05) while the red blood cells (RBC),WBC, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets and the lymphocytes were significantly influenced by the test feedstuff (p<0.05). It was concluded that Balanites aegyptiaca, roasted or boiled followed by fermentation and included at 20% level could serve a useful alternative feedstuff for monogastric animals considering most of the positive results obtained.
Annongu, A. A., Meulen, U., Atteh, J.O., Apata, D. F., 1996. Toxicological assessment of native and industrial fermented shea-butter cake in nutrition of broilers. Arch. Gefluegelk,60(5):221-226
Archibald, R.G., 1933. The use of the fruits- Balanites aegyptiaca in the control of schistosomiasis in the Sudan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Hygiene, 27, 2007.
Bassey, O.A., Lowry, O.H., Brock, M.J. 1946. Methods for the rapid determination of Alkaline phosphatase with five cubic millimeters of serum. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 104: 321-329.
Benjamin, M.M., 1978. Outline of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd edition, Iowa state University Press, Iowa, U.S.A., P. 35-105.
Church, J.P., Jueid, J.J., Young, C.W., Robay, T.L., Kim, W.W., 1984. Relationship among dietary constituents and specific serum clinical components of subjects eating self selected diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 40: 134.
Davis, D.L. 1964. Sympathetic stimulation and small artery constriction. American Journal of Physiology, 206:262.
Duncan D.B. 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F-tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
Eggum, B.O., Thorbek, L., Beames, R. M. Chuwa, R.M., Log, L., Henkel, S. 1982. Influence of diet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility and nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats and pigs. Poland Journal of Nutrition, 48: 161-165.
El-Khidir, OA., Gumaa, A.Y., Fangali, A. A.I., Badir, N.A., Khidir, O.A.E.., 1983. Balanites aegyptiaca. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 9: 4, 301-306, 9 ref. Central Animal Production Research Station, Kuku, Sudan.
Hardman, R.F., Sofowora, A., 1972. Reinvestigation of Balanites aegyptiaca as a source of steroidal sapogenins. In: Medicinal Plants of Tropical West Africa. B. Oliver?Bever (ed), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge London. New York. New Rochelle. Mebourne. Sydney. 54-58.
Harper, A.E., Rodwell, V.W., Meyer, P. A., 1979. Medical Biochemistry, Los Altos, California, 9422, 80-81, 188-216.
Jain, N.C., 1986. Schalman's Veterinary Haematology. 4th edition. Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia. P.A, U.S.A P. 208-224.
Kon, G.R.A., Weller, W.T., 1939. Sapogenin iv. The sapogenin of Balanites aegyptiaca. In: Medicinal plants in Tropical West Africa. B. Oliver-Bever (ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. London. New York. New Rochelle. Melbourne. Sydney. 54-58.
Lars, S., Joker, D., 2000. Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del. Seed leaflet, Danida Forest Seed Centre, Denmark.
Lockett, C.T., Calvert, C.C., Grivettic, I. E. 2002. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani North east of Nigeria. International Food Science Nutrition, 51(3): 195-208
Makkar, H.P.S., 2000. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assay for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniferous tree foliage. FAO/IAEA working documents, IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M., 2005. Lahninger Principles of Biochemistry. Published in India by W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, p 656-671 and 816-829.
Onifade, A., Abu, A., 1998. Proposing fortification of foods with yeast for optimum nutritional value and salubrious effects. Nutrition and Food Science, 223-226.
Onyango, M.C., Raude, J.M., Noor, Y. A., 2007. The use of Balanites aegyptiaca to control Bilharzia-causing snail flukes in irrigation canals and reservoirs. Water and environmental engineering, Egerton University, Kenya.
N.R.C. 1994. Nutrient requirements of Poultry, 9th Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1994.
Singh, S.P. 1990. Manual of Practical Biochemistry. C.B.S. Publishers & Distributors, 485 JBBNN, Shahdra, DELHI-110032
Sulaiman, A.E.,. Jackson, J.K., 1959. The tree Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del. Sudan, 9( 2):6.
Tijani, T.C., 2007. Nutritional and chemical composition of Nigerian Balanites aegyptiaca fruits as alternative livestock feedstuff. B. Agriculture dissertation, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.