Keywords: Soybean, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Glomus mosseae, G deserticola, Residual soil


A screenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the response of soybean to inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae and Glomus deserticola). The study was carried out in a screenhouse with soybean as test crop. The two species of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) were inoculated to the potted soil with or without B. japonicum. Single super phosphate (SSP) and zero amendment served as conventional and absolute control respectively. The experimental design was randomized complete block with 4 replicates. AMF/Bradyrhizobium interaction increased mycorrhizal fungi root colonization significantly (p = 0.05) by at least 35.9% at early growth stage (3 weeks after planting (WAP)) and 59.5% at later growth stage (9 WAP). G mosseae/Bradyrhizobium interaction significantly increased N and P uptakes by 68.9 and 80.0%, respectively, as well as plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, canopy spread and leaf area between 2 and 5 WAP. Soybean biomass increased significantly due to interaction of G mosseae and Bradyrhizobium by 42.2-53.4% between 3 and 9 WAP and nodule weight increased by 61.9-93.3% between 6 and 9 WAP. Grain yield per plant was similar in all AMF treatments and SSP but less in sole Bradyrhizobium inoculation by 37.5% and in control by 33.3%. AMF/Bradyrhizobium interactions produced higher N by up to 81% in the residual soil and the P content was similar to SSP but higher than in control by up to 32.3%. Interaction of G mosseae and Bradyrhizobium increased spores of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil by 41% at 3 WAP and 74.7% at 9 WAP. It was concluded that although Bradyrhizobium had a positive and synergistic influence on the activities of the two species of mycorrhizal fungi inoculated on soybean, the influence was, however, more pronounced on G mosseae than G deserticola.


Abdelgair, A.H. 1998. The role of mycorrhizae in soybean growth in P-deficient soil in the humid tropics. PhD Thesis Cornell University, pp 295.
Anderson, J.M., Ingram, J.S.I. 1998. Colorimetric determination of phosphorus. In: Tropical soil biology and fertility a handbook of methods (Eds.). CAB international pp 82-89.

Atayese, M.O, Awotoye, O.O., Osonubi, O., Mulongoy, K. 1993. Comparisons of the influence of vesicular-aruscular mycorrhiza on the productivity of hedgerow woody legumes and cassava t the top and base of a hillslope in alley cropping systems. Biology and Fertility of Soil 16: 198-204

Auge, R.M. 2001. Water relations, drought and versicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. Mycorrhiza 11: 3-42.

Awotoye, O.O., Atayese, M.O., Osonubi, O., Mulongoy, K. 1992. Response of some tropical nitrogen-fixing woody legumes to drought and inoculation with mycorrhiza. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. K. Mulongoy, M. Gueye and D.S.C Spencer (eds.) pp 67-75.

Babalola O.A., Amapu, I.Y. 1999. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation responses of Phosphorus fertilized soybean to microbial inoculated soil. Samaru J. Agric. Research, 15: 3-12.

Babalola, O.A., Amapu, I.Y. 2006. Response of some cowpea genotypes to different rates of phosphorus in Samaru. Nigerian J. of Soil Science 16: 77-83.

Barea, J.M., Azcon-aguilar, C. 1983. Mycorrhizas and their significance in nodulating nitrogen fixing plants. Adv. Agron. 36: 1-54.

Barea, J.M., Azcon, R., Azcon-aguilar, C. 1992. Versicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in nitrogen fixing systems. In: Norris J.R, Read Dj, Varma AK, eds. Methods in Microbiology. London: Academic Press, 391-416.

Barea, J.M., Azcon, R., Azcon-aguilar, C. 2002. Mycorrhizosphere interaction to improve plant fitness and soil quality. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 81: 343-351.

Barea, J.M., Azcon, R., Azcon-aguilar, C. 2004. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Vama A, Abbot L, Werner D, Hampp R, eds. Plant surface microbiology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 351-37

Barea, J.M., Azcon, R., Azcon-aguilar, C. 2005a. Interaction bwtween mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria to improve plant nutrient cycling and soil structure. In: Buscot F, Varma S eds. Microorganisms in soils: Roles in genesis and function. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 195-212

Barea, J.M., Pozo, M.J., JAzcon, R., Azcon-aguilar, C. 2005b. Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. Journal of Experimental Botany. 197: 1-18.

Bolan, N.S., Robson, A.D., Barrow, N.J. 1987. Effect of Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhiza on the availability of iron phosphates to plants. Plant and Soil. 99: 401-410.

Bray, R.H., Kutz, L.T. 1945. Determination of total, organic available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59: 39-45.

Bremner, J.M. 1996. Nitrogen-Total In: Methods of Soil analysis. Part 3 Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America and America Society of Agronomy 6775 Segoe Rd, Madison, Wis37111, USA Book Series 5: 1149-1176.

Daniel, B.A., Skipper, H.D. 1982. Methods of recovery and quantitative estimation of propagules from soil In: Schenck N.C (ed) Methods and principles of mycorrhizal research. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota pp 29-35.

Fagbola, O., Osonubi, O., Mulongoy, K. 1998. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and hedgerow trees to the yield and nutrient uptake of cassava in an alley-cropping system. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge. 131: 79-85.

Federal Fertilizer Department (FFD) 2002. Fertilizer recommendation for grain legumes In: Fertilizer. Olayiwola S.O. (eds.) Nigeria. Pp. 66-70.

Gerdeman, J.W. 1975. Versicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. In: Torrey, J G, Clarkson, DT (Eds.), The Development and Function of Roots. Academic Pres London, New York, pp 575-591

Gianinazzi, S., Schuepp, H., Barea, J.M., Haselwandter, K. 2002. Mycorrhizal technology in agriculture: from genes to bioproducts. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.

Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. 1997. Have common plant systems co-evolved in fungi and bacterial root symbioses? In: Legocki A, Bother H, Puhler A, (Eds.) Biological fixation of nitrogen for ecology and sustainable agriculture. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 322-324

Guevara, R., Lopez, J.C. 2007. Quality of root environments and patterns of root colonization by AMF in strangler figs in: A Mexican Palmelto woodland. Mycoorhiza 17(7): 589-596

Juo, A.S.R., Moormen, F.R., Maduakor, H.O. 1974. Forms and pedogenic distribution of extractable Fe and Al in selected soils of Nigeria. Geoderma 11: 167-176

Kang, B.T., Islam, R., Sanders, F.E., Ayanaba, A. 1980. effect of phosphate fertilization and inoculation with VA-mycorrhiza fungi on performance of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) grown on an Alfisol. Field Crops Res 3: 83-94

Khalil, S., Loynachan, T.E., Tabatabai, M.A. 1994 Mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake by improved and unimproved corn and soybean cultivars. Agron. J. 86: 949-958

Linderman, R.G. 1992. Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhizea and soil microbial interactions. In: Bethlenfalvay GJ, Linderman RG (eds.) Mycorrhiza in sustainable agriculture. Am Soc Agron Madison, Wis. Pp 45-70

Mc Gonigle, T.P., Miller, M.H., Evan, D.G., Fairchild, D., Swan, J.A 1990. A new method which gives objective measure of colonization of roots by Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The New Phytologist 115: 495-501

Murphy, J., Riley, J.P. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural water. Anal. Chem. Acta. 27: 31-36

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter In: page AL, Miller RH, Keeny DR (Eds) Methods of soil analysis Part 3 Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America 6775 Segoe Rd, Madison, Wis37111, USA Book Series 5: 20

Nwoko, N., Sanginga, N. 1999. Dependence of promiscuous soybean and herbaceous legumes on arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and their response to bradyrhizobial inoculation in low P soils. Applied Soil Ecology 398: 1-8

Osonubi, O., Mulongoy, K., Awotoye, O.O., Atayese, M.O., Okali, D.U.U. 1991. Effect of ectomycorrhizal and versicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of four leguminous woody seedlings. Plant and Soil, 136:,131-143.

Parniske, M. 2004. Molecular genetics of the arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis. Current opinion in Plant Biology 7: 414-421

Phillips, J.M., Hayman, D.S. 1970. Improved procedure for cleaning roots and staining parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 5: 158-161.

Porcel, R., Barea, J.M., Luiz-Lozano, J.M. 2003. Antioxidant activities in mycorrhizal soybean plants under drought stress and their possible relationship to the process of nodule senescence. New Phytologist 157: 135-14

Provorov, N.A., Borisov, A.Y., Tikhonovich, I.A. 2002. Developmental genetics and evolution of symbiotic structures in nitrogen fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 214: 215-232

Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. 2003 Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and alleviation of osmotic stress. New perspective for molecular studies. Mycorrhiza, 13: 309-317

Sanginga, N., Okogun, J.A., Akobundu, I.O., Kang, B.T. 1996. Phosphorus requirements and nodulation of herbaceous legumes in low P soils of Guinea savanna in Nigeria. Appl. Soil Ecol., 3: 247-255

Schreiner, R.P., Tarara, J.M., Smithyman, R.P. 2007. Deficit irrigation promotes arbuscular colonization of fine roots by mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L) in an arid climate. Mycorrhiza, 17(5): 551-562

Statistical Analysis Systems Institute 1989. SAS User’s Guide SAS instate/STAT User’Guide, Version 6 4th ed. Vol 2 Cary, NC. USA.

Turnau, K., Jurkieviecz, A., Lingua, G., Barea, J.M., Gianinnazi-Pearson, V. 2005. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and associated micro-organism in phytoremediation of heavy polluted sites. In: Prassad MNV, Sajwan D, Ravi S, eds. Trace elements in the environment. Biogeochemistry, biotechnology and bioremediation. CRC Press/Lewis Publishers

Vincent, J.M. 1970. A manual for the practical study of root nodule bacteria. Blackwell, Oxford. IBP Handbook No 15

Voets, L., Providence, I., Fernandez, K., Ijdo, M., Cranenbrouck, S., Declerck, S. 2009. Extraradical mycelium network arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi allows fast colonization of seedlings under in vitro conditions. Mycorrhiza, 19(5): 347-356

Yusuf, A.A., Iwuafor, E.N.O., Abaidoo, R.C., Olufajo, O.O., Sanginga, N. 2009. Grain legume rotation benefits to maize in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Fixed-nitrogen versus other rotation effect. Nutrient Cyclng. 84(2): 129-139