ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF THYMOL IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BACTERIAL WILT OF TOMATO

A. R. POPOOLA, S. A. GANIYU, S. O. DUROJAIYE

Abstract


Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is a devastating disease of tomato world-wide. The disease is responsible for more than 60% reduction of tomato yield in Nigeria. Volatile plant essential oil, thymol, was evaluated against BW in artificially-inoculated potted plants.  Twenty milliliter of 108 cfu/ml suspension of Ralstonia solanacearum was introduced into 5 kg pot of sterilized soil and 20 ml each of three concentrations of thymol (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 g/L) applied as pre-plant soil drench 2 hours after bacterial inoculation.  Eight tomato genotypes were transplanted into the pots five days after thymol application.    The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates.  At 0.2 g/L thymol application, disease severity index was 1.50-4.00 at 5 Weeks After Transplanting (WAT).  Disease severity index was reduced significantly (p<0.05) by 77.78% in tomato variety Delila upon 0.4 g/L application of thymol. At 0.6 g/L thymol application, tomato varieties Delila, Perfect Pee and Kerewa each had 0 (zero) disease severity index, while tomato lines NG/AA/MAY/09/030, NG/TB/AUG/09/006 and NG/AA/SEP/09/037 had disease severity index of 1 (one) each.  These results indicated that application of thymol (0.6 g/L concentration, 1:250, thymol:soil, v:w) in potted experiment was effective in reducing the severity index of bacteria wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, and is therefore recommended for management of the disease.


Keywords


Bacterial wilt, Management, Thymol, Tomato

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