EFFECTS OF SEASON ON AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF SOME MUTANT COWPEA LINES
A field experiment aimed at determination of influence of season on the yield potential of some cowpeas lines was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria located on Latitude 7012' N and longitude 3020' E during the late rain season (August- November 2013) and early rain season (April- July, 2014). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Qualitative and quantitative data such as stem petiole pigmentation, leaf colour, flower form and colour, dry pod colour, seed coat texture, plant height, number of days to flower and first ripe pod, pod length , total number of pods/plant , total number of seeds/plant, 100-seeds weight were taken. Combined analysis of variance to determine line x season interaction, while SASTM 9.1, (2000) version statistical package was used to separate the means, Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the inter-character relationships among the traits. Major characters causing variation within the population was calculated using Principal component analysis (PCA). Most of the cowpea lines were non-pigmented and papillinaeous, except Rosa-1 and 2 that showed rosaceous flower form. Cowpea lines such as Rosa-2, IF-Br-Y-2 and IB-Cyt.Y had yellow foliage, while the flower colour ranged from solid purple and white to white petal with purple wings. Line x season interaction revealed a high level of significance for most of the traits studied. Means of the cowpea lines’ traits were significantly different from one another. Pod length was highly correlated with number of seed per pod, pod per plant and 100 seed weight (r = 0.63, 0.45 and 0.66) respectively, while plant height had a negative and highly significant correlation with days to flowering (r = -0.58) and days to fruiting (r = -0.60).
Ahiakpa, J. K., Amoatey, H. M. and Klu, G. Y. P. 2012. Genetic diversity study: a tool for harnessing okra germplasm in Ghana. Larmbert Academic Publishing. pp 1- 249.
Akinwale, M. G., Gregorio, G., Nwilene, F., Akinyele, B. O., Ogunbayo, S. A. and Odiyi, A. C.2011. Heritability and correlation coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Plant Science. 5 (3): 207-212.
Akotkar, P.K., De, D.K. and Pal, A. K. 2010. Genetic Variability and Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 1(4): 393-398.
Ali, Y., Aslam, Z., Hussain, F. and Shakur, A. 2004. Genotype and environmental interaction in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. for yield and disease resistance. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 1(2): 119-123.
Awoleye, F. 2000. Mutagenesis in Cowpea: A new plant type, seed coat colour of a local cultivar with improvement in agronomic traits though gamma irradiation. African Science Journal. 1: 49-56.
Chaudhuri, S. K. 2002. A simple and reliable method to detect gamma irradiated lentil (Lensculinaris Medik.) seeds by germination efficiency and seedling growth test. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 64: 131–136.
Cook, B.G., Pengelly, B.C., Brown, S.D., Donnelly, J.L., Eagles, D.A., Franco, M.A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B.F., Partridge, I.J., Peters, M. and Schultze-Kraft, R. 2005. Tropical forages: an interactive selection tool. Vigna unguiculata. CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT, and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia. pp.14-37.
Dhanavel, D., Gnanamurthy, S. and Girija, M. 2012. Effect of gamma rays on induced chromosomal variation in cowpea. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. International Journal of Current Science. pp. 245-250.
Fawole, I. 1997. Inheritance of crinkled leaf in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Nigerian Journal of Science. 31:35–40.
Fawole, I. 2000. Genetic Analysis of Mutations at Loci Controlling Leaf Form in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Journal of Heredity. (92)1:43-50.
Fawole, I. 2003. Genetic characterization of four mutations affecting foliage colour in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 58: 371- 378.
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), 2010. The state of food insecurity in the world. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Gardner, E. J., Siiumons, M. J. and D. P. Snustad (1991). Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and sons incorporated: New-York. pp. 288-319.
Hazra, P. and Basu, D. 2000. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in okra. Annals of Agricultural Research. 21(3): 452-453.
Lesly, W. D. 2005. Characterization and evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.)germplasm. M. Sc. (Agric.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. pp. 111- 112.
Moukoumbi, Y. D., Sie, M., Vodouhe, R., R. Toulou, R., Ogunbayo, S. A. and Ahanchede, A. 2011. Assessing phenotypic diversity of interspecific rice varieties using agro-morphological characterization. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 3(5): 74-86.
Nelson, O. E. 1967. Biochemical genetics of higher plants. Annual Review of Genetics. 1: 245-265.
Popoola, J. O., Adegbite, A. E. and Obembe, O. O. 2011. Cytological studies on some accessions of African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis stenocastenocarpa Hochst. Ex. A. Rich. Harms). International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2(8):249-253.
Porbeni, J. B. O. 2009. Cytoplasmic and nuclear inheritance of some mutations and their effects on agronomic traits of cowpea. Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Crop protection and Environmental Biology. University of Ibadan. pp. 118.
Porbeni, J.O and I. Fawole. 2004. Evaluation of some Vigna species for Morphological and Agronomic characteristics. Bulletin of The Science Association of Nigeria. 25: 119- 124.
Porbeni, J. B. and Fawole, I. 2012. Inheritance of yellow foliage colour and instability as a result of transposable element activities in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Journal of Natural Science, Enginering and Technology. 10(2): 67-78.
Porbeni, J. and Fawole, I. 2013. Inheritance of stem fasciation and its effect on some agronomic traits of cowpea. Journal of Crop Science. 53:1937–1943.
Preeti, V., Garg, D. K. and Varma, P. 2003. Estimation of genetic parameters among set of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) genotypes. Annals of Agricultural Research. 24(1):156-158.
Sarvamangala, and Cholin, S. 2004. Genetic studies on different plant types of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). M. Sc. (Agric.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. pp. 86-88
SAS, Statistical Analysis Systems Institute 2009. SAS user’s guide, version 9.1. SAS Institute. Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.
Singh, B. B, Chambliss, O. L, Sharma, B 1997. Recent advances in cowpea breeding. In: Advances in cowpea research (Eds) Singh, B. B., Mohan Raj, D. R., Dashiell, K. E., and Jackai, L. E .N.). Co-publication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 30–49.
Subramanian, A. and Subbaraman, N. 2010. Hierarchical cluster analysis of genetic diversity in Maize germplasm. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 1(4): 431-436.
Thomas Jefferson Agricultural Institute (TJAI), 2010. Cowpea: a versatile legume for hot, dryconditions. Columbia, MO. http://www.jeffersoninstitute.org/pubs/cowpeas.
Timko, M.P. and Singh, B.B. 2008. Cowpea, a multifunctional legume, In: Genomics of tropical crop plants. Moore, P.H., Ming, R. (Eds.). Springer, New York, pp. 227-257.