GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND BLOOD INDICES OF FINISHING BROILER CHICKENS FED VARYING LEVELS OF PRE-GELATINIZED CASSAVA GRITS AS A REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE

  • A. O. LALA Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta
  • M. K. OLANREWAJU Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
  • A. P. OLANREWAJU Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
  • R. A. SANUSI Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
  • A. L. OLATUNDE Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
  • O. R. SENAIKE Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
Keywords: gelatinization, starch, thiocyanate, organs

Abstract

Pre gelatinized cassava grit (PGCG) is a new cassava product produced mechanically and commercially for poultry feeding. Five dietary treatments were formulated with PGCG replacing maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % in broiler starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher (4-8 weeks) diets. Two hundred (200) day-old broiler chickens were allotted to the five dietary treatments in a completely random design.  Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate and 40 birds per treatment. At the end of week 4 and 8 of the experiment, data were collected on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, haematological and serum biochemical indices. Final weight and weight gain were significantly (P < 0.05) highest in broilers fed 25 % PGCG diet, followed by those fed control diet. While, (P < 0.05) similar and lower values were obtained from broilers fed other PGCG diets. Feed intake decreased (P < 0.05) with PGCG in the diets at the starting and finishing phases. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility was (P < 0.05) highest in starting broilers fed 25 % PGCG diet, while digestibility (P < 0.05) declined with higher levels of PGCG. At the finishing phase, digestibility of all nutrients was similar (P < 0.05). Apparent metabolizable energy was (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed PGCG diets in the starting and finishing phases. Haematological and serum biochemical indices showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in the broiler chickens fed varying levels of PGCG in the diets. Broiler chickens fed PGCG above 25% in the diet had significantly (P < 0.05) higher proventriculus values when compared with those fed the control diet and 25% PGCG diet. The study revealed that substituting maize with 25 % PGCG in broiler diets improved growth and nutrient digestibility. Reduction in weight gain and non significant increased thiocyanate at higher PGCG inclusion should be improved for effective utilization of pre gelatinized cassava grit in broiler diets.

 

References

Bergmeyer, H.U. 1983. Methods of enzymatic analysis. Vol. III. Enzymes 1: Oxido-reductase transferase. Verlay Chemie, Deerfteld Beach, FL, pp. 126 – 510

Schalm, O.W., Jain, N.C., Qureshi, M. Q. 1975. Veterinary hematology, third ed. Lea and Fibinger, Philadilphia, PA, US.

Akinfala, E.O., Aderibigbe, A.O., Matanmi, O. 2002. Evaluation of the nutritive value of whole cassava plant as replacement for maize in the starter diets for broiler chicken. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 14: 1-6.

AOAC, 2000. Official method analysis. Association of official methods of Analytical Chemists (18th ed.; W. Horwitz, Ed.) Gaithersberg, MD

Baltha, A.D., Cereda, M.P. 2006. Cassava free cyanide analysis using KCN or acetone-cyanidrin as pattern. Proceedings of the 1st International Meeting on Cassava Breeding, Biotechnology and Ecology, November 11-15, 2006, Brasilia, Brazil, pp: 132-132.

Enyenihi, G.E., Udedibie, A.B.I., Akpan, M.J., Obasi , O.L., Solomon, I.P. 2008. Effects of 5-hour wetting of sun-dried cassava tuber meal on its HCN content, performance and haemotological indices of laying hens. Proceedings of Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production University of Calabar, pp. 402-404.

Falade, K.O., Akingbala, J.O. 2011. Utilization of cassava for food. Food Review International. 27: 51-83.

FAO, 2014. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food Outlook. Biannual report on global food markets.

Fossati, P., Prencipe, L., Berti, G. 1980. Use of 3,5-dichloro-2- hydroxybenzenesulforic acid/4- aminophenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymatic assay of uric in serum and urine. Journal of Clinical Chemistry 26(2):227-231.

Garcia, M., Dale, N. 1999. Cassava root meal for poultry. Journal of Applied Poultry Science. 8: 132-137.

Gomes, E., Souza, S.R., Grandi, R.P., Silva, R.D. 2005. Production of thermostable glucoamylase by newly isolated Aspergillus flavus A1.1 and Thermomyces lanuginosus A13.37. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 36: 75-82.

Gomez, G., Valdivieso, M., Santos, J. 1988. Cassava whole root chips silage for growing finishing pigs. Nutrition Report International. 37(5): 1081-1092.

Grant, G.H. 1987. Amino acids and proteins: Fundamentals Saunders Company Philadephia, USA 328—329.

Granfeldt, Y., Bjorck, I., Eliasson, A.C. 2000. An examination of the possibility of lowering the glycemic index of oat and barley flakes by minimal processing. Journal of Nutrition. 130: 2207–2214.

Hidalgo, M.A., Dozier, W.A., Davis, A.J., Gordon, R.W. 2004. Live performance and meat yield responses of broilers to progressive concentrations of dietary energy maintained at a constant metabolisable energy-crude protein ratio. Journal of Applied Poultry Resources. 13: 319-327.

Hill, F.W., Anderson, D.L., Renner, R., Carew, L.B. 1960. Studies of metabolized energy of grain and grain products for chickens. Poultry Science. 39:573-579.

Holm, J., Lundquist, I., Bjorck, I., Eliasson, A.C., Asp, N.G. 1988. Degree of starch gelatinization, digestion rate of starch in vitro, and metabolic response in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 47: 1010–1016.

Jain, N. C. 1986. Schalm's Veterinary Haematology. Lea 7 Febiger, Philadephia, U.S.A.

Jane, J., Ao, Z., Duvick, S.A., Wiklund, M., Yoo, S.H., Wong, K.S., Gardner, C. 2002. Structures of amylopectin and starch granules: How are they synthesized? Journal of Applied Glycoscience. 50: 167-172.

Kaplan, L.A., Pesce, A.J., Kazmierczak, S.C. 2003. Liver Function. In: Sherwin, J.E. Clinical Chemistry. 4th ed. Mosby. An affiliate of Elsevier Science. St. Lauis, Toronto.

Glick, B. 1998. Immunophysiology. In: Sruke, P.D. Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Springer-Verlage-New York. pp.657-666.

Liu, S.Y., Selle, P.H., Cowieson, A.J. 2013. Strategies to enhance the performance of pigs and poultry on sorghum-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 181: 1-14

Montagnac, J.A., Davis, C.R., Tanumihardjo, S.A. 2009. Nutritional value of cassava for use as a staple food and recent advances for improvement. Comprehensive Review of Food Science and Food Safety. 8(3): 181-194.

Nalle, C.L., Ravindran, G., Ravindran, V. 2013. Extrusion of peas (Pisum sativum L): Effects on the apparent metabolisable energy and ileal nutrient digestibility of broilers. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science. 6: 25-30

Obidinma, V.N.,, Ekenyem, B.U. 2010. Effects of brewer dried grain consumption on haematological indices of laying birds. Journal of Nature and Applied Sciences. 6(3): 311 – 316.

Okoli, I.C., Okparaocha, C.O., Chinweze, C.E., Udedibie, A.B.I. 2012. Physicochemical and hydrogen cyanide content of three processed cassava products used for feeding poultry in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances. 7:334-340

Obikaonu, H.O., Udedibie, A.B.I. 2006. Comparative evaluation of sun-dried and ensiled cassava peel meals as substitute for maize in broiler starter diets. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 7: 52-55.

Oladunjoye, I.O., Ojebiyi, O., Amao, O.A. 2010. Effect of feeding processed cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) peel meal based diet on the performance characteristics, egg quality and blood profile of laying chicken. Agricultural Tropica Et Subtropica. 43 (2): 119-126.

Olugbemi, T.S., Mutayoba, S.K., Lekule, F.P. 2010. Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) inclusion in cassava based diets fed to broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 9(4): 363-367.

Pauzenga, U. (1985). Feeding Parent Stock. Zootech International, pp. 22-25.

Rafiu, T.A., Aderinola, O.A., Akinwumi, A.O., Alabi, T.A., Shittu, M.D. 2013. Performance and blood chemistry of broiler chickens fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, pp. 294.

Ravindran, V., Amerah, A. M. 2008. Improving the nutritive value of feedstuffs using new technologies. Proceedings of the 23rd Worlds Poultry Science Congress Brisbane Australia, pp. 108.

Rivetz, B., Bogin, E., Hornstein, K., Merdinger, M. 1975. Biochemical change in chicken serum during infection with strains of Newcastle disease virus of differing virulence. Enzyme study. Avian Pathology. 4: 189-197.

Roeschlau, P., Bent, E., Gruber, J.W. 1974. Method of cholesterol determination. Clinical Chemistry 12:403

SAS 2010. SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, Version and Edition, Cary, North Carolina SAS Institute.

Tang, D.F., Ru, Y.J., Song, S.Y., Choct, M., Iji, P.A. 2012. The effect of cassava chips, pellets, pulp and maize based diets on performance, digestion and metabolism of nutrients for broilers. Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances 1(9): 1332-1337.

Thirumalaisamy, G., Muralidharan, J., Senthilkumar, S., Hemasayee, R., Priyadharsini, M. 2016. Cost effective feeding for poultry. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 5(6): 3997-4005.

Weurding, R., Enting, E., Vestegen, H. 2003. The effect of site of starch digestion on performance of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Technology. 111: 175-184.
Published
2019-05-16
Section
Original Manuscript