EFFECTS OF AESTIVATION DURATION ON REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DIMENSION AND SPERMATOZOA PRODUCTION OF GIANT AFRICAN LAND SNAIL (Archachatinamarginata) DURING DRY SEASON

  • J. A. ABIONA Department of Animal Physiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
  • A. C. ESHORUN Department of Animal Physiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
  • F. M. MSHELBWALA Department of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Keywords: Aestivation duration, reproductive tract, spermatozoa count, Giant African Land snail, dry season

Abstract

Aestivation is a process of metabolic suspension which plays a key role in the survival of land snails during a period of drought. Human shave also used this process to transport the animal for commercial purpose. To examine the effect of this physiological process on reproductive apparatus, thirty (30) Giant African Land snail (Archachatinamarginata) with average weight of 130 -150g were used for this study. The snails were allotted to three different treatments with ten (10) replicate each after four weeks of acclimatization period which include: zero (0) week, three (3) weeks and six (6) weeks of aestivation. Parameters measured were: Internal organ weight, ovo-testis weight, reproductive tract length (cm) and weight (g). Also gonado-somatic index and spermatozoa concentration were also determined. Results showed that aestivation duration had significant influence on organ weight, ovo-testis weight, reproductive tract length and weight and spermatozoa concentration. However, gonado-somatic index (GSI) was not significantly influenced. It was observed that organ weight decreased as aestivation duration increased. For ovo-testis, snails with aestivation duration of six weeks had smaller weight compared to the control (0 week) while those at three weeks aestivation duration were not significantly different from the control group and those of six weeks aestivation duration. For reproductive tract weight, there was a significant(P<0.01)decrease in weight of the tract for both snails under three and six weeks aestivation duration compared to the control group (0 week). Spermatozoa count also decreased as aestivation duration increased. It can therefore be concluded that aestivation duration had significant effect on organ weight, ovo-testis weight, reproductive tract weight and spermatozoa concentration. For quick target of reproduction and snail economic value, it is recommended that aestivation duration should not be allowed to reach three weeks and above for whatever reason.

 

 

 

References

Abdussamad, M.A., Olusegun, A.O., Olusiji, F.S., Samuel, A.O. 2010. Some haemolymph biophysical parameters in the giant African land snail Archachatinamarginata during a six-week aestivation period. Global veterinaria, 4(4): 400–408.

AL-Rawadeh, A. 2010.The role of starvation on selective immunological parameters in land snail Helix aspersa. Adv. Environ. Biol. 4 (2), 265–270.

Barber, B. J., Blake, N. J. 1983. Growth and reproduction of the bay scallop, Argopectenirradians at its southern distributional limit. Journal of Experimental Marine
Biology and Ecology. 66: 247-256.

Cameron, J. L., Nosbisch, C . 1991. Suppression of pulsatile lutenizing hormone and testosterone secretion during short term food restriction in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macacamulatta). Endocrinology 128: 1532-1540.

Christian, O. C., Vincent C. E, Chinweike, N. A.,Emmanuel, I. N., Ogochukwu, C. O, Elijah, I. O, Godwin, C. U.,Loretta, C. O, Chidinma, A. L. 2014. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snailAchatinaachatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) intropical agro-ecosystem. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology 67: 48–57

Gomez, A. K., Gomez, A. A. 1985. Statistical Proceedings for Agricultural Research. Willey, New York.

Gonzales, C., Voirol, M. J., Giacomini, M., Gaillard, R.C., Pedrazzini, T., Pralong, F.P. 2004.The neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor mediates NPYinduced inhibition of the gonadotrope axis under poor metabolic conditions. FASEB J 18:137–139.

Guppy, M. 2004. The biochemistry of metabolic depression: a history of perceptions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 139B, 435-442.

Hermes-Lima, M., Storey, K.B., 1998. Role of antioxidant defenses in the tolerance of severe dehydration by anuras: the case of the leopard frog Ranapipiens. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 189, 79–89.

Marc, V. 1984.Effects of starvation on growth and reproductive apparatus of two immature freshwater snails Biomphalariapfeifferi and Biomphalariaglabrata(Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Hydrobiology 109 (2):165-172.

Marijke, D. J. 1973. The effects of desiccation and starvation upon the weight, histology and ultrastructure of the reproductive tract of Biomphalariaglabrata, intermediate host of Schistosomamansoni. ZeitschriftfürZellforschung und MikroskopischeAnatomie136 (2):229-262

Michael, S. J. 2011. Effect of constrasting habitats and weather on abundance of the Land snail Thesbapisana (O. F. Muller, 1774): a 34-year study. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77 (3): 218-225

Nowakowska, A., Swiderska-Kolacz, G., Rogalska, J., Caputa, M., 2009.Antioxidants and oxidative stress in Helix pomatia snails during estivation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C 150, 481–486.

Olusola, A. O., Oluwatoyin, O. A., Oyeyemi, M. O., Kadiri, A. O. 2003. The effect of starvation on Scrotal Circumference and Morphology of spermatozoa of West African Dwarf Goat Buck. Trop. Vet. 21(2):9-14.

Omoyakhi, J. M.,Osinowo, O. A. 2010. Constitutive and adaptive changes of giant African Land snails, Archachatinamarginata and Achatinaachatina, to support transition from the aestivating state to arousal. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2 (3): 33-41.

Rahman, M. S., Raut, S. K. 2012. Consequences of Aestivation in the Giant African Land Snail Achatinafulica Bowdich (Gastropoda: Achatinidae) Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 65 (2): 95-104.

Rodjmark, S. 1987. Increased gonadotropin responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone during fasting in normal subjects.Metabolism 36: 21- 82.

Steiner, J., LaPaglia, N., Kirsteins, L., Emanuele, M., Emanuele, N. 2003. The response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to fasting is modulated by leptin. Endocr Res. 29(2):107-117.

Storey, K. B., Storey, J. M. 2012. Aestivation: Signaling and hypometabolism. Journal of Experimental Biology 215:1425-1433

SYSTAT, 1992. SYSTAT Computer Package, Version 5.02 SYSTAT, Inc. 1800 Sherman AV., Evanston, IL USA, 6021, 708.864.5670.

Tamburi, N. E., Martín, P. R. 2011. Effects of food availability on reproductive output, offspring quality and reproductive efficiency in the apple snail Pomaceacanaliculata. BiolInvas 13:2351–2360.

TerMaat, A., Lodder, J. C., Veenstra, J., Goldschmeding, J. C. 1989. Suppression of egg-laying during starvation in the snail Lymnaeastagnalis by inhibition of the ovulation hormone producing Caudo-dorsal cells.Brain Research 239 (2): 535:542.

Vega, I. A., Damborenea, M. C., Gamarra-Luques, C., Koch, E., Cueto, J. A. 2006. Facultative and obligate symbiotic associations of P o m a c e a c a n a l i c u l ata 
(Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae). Biocell30:367–375.

Withers, P. C., Cooper, C. E. 2010. Metabolic depression: a historical perspective. Prog.Mol. Subcell. Biol. 49, 1-23.
Published
2019-05-16
Section
Original Manuscript