• L. O. OKOJIE
Keywords: Kolanut production, processing, marketing, enterprise, Food Security.


This study on Kola nut production in Ogun State was aimed at describing the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, net farm income, marketing channels and factors influencing output of kola nut for its impact on food security. Multistage sampling technique was used in the study; the first stage involves the purposive selection of Sagamu Local Government as largest Kola nut farming with 4 communities; namely; Agbowa; Sagamu; Igodo, and Odelemo. The second stage involves simple random selection of 100 kola nut farmers, 25 per community. A structured questionnaire was administered subject to descriptive analysis, multiple regressions, and budgetary analysis. The results revealed that male 82% and female 18% were involved in kola nut production, processing and marketing. Average household size of 6 members with a minimum of 25 years farming experiences. The study revealed that 51% of the farmers sold directly to wholesalers, 37% sold to processors, and 12% sold to retailers. Also, 83%, of the producers and marketers were married 16% were widowed and only 1% divorced. Average age was 58years and average farm size of 2.71 hectares. Average farm net income was ₦208,680.40 per annum with the total revenue of ₦291,149 and a gross margin of ₦237,789.50 per annum. The average total cost incurred was calculated as ₦82,468.40 being cost of labour, transportation and items such as cutlass, hoes and files.


Regression analysis used to determine the factors affecting the output of kola nut showed that farm size, age of kola nut plantation and the age of farmers were significant at 10%, 5% and 1% respectively using double log equation and the model was significant at 1%. The age of farmers (x1) was negatively significant which implies that as farmers reach old age, this may serve as hindrance due to physical inability to undertake vigorous farm activities hence reduction in output occurs by 13.3%. Farming experience (x2) was negatively correlated with output of kolanut indicating that a unit increase in experience of kolanut farmers will decrease output by 12.3%. Farm size was found to positively significant which implies that a unit increase in farm size will increase output by 83.1%.

The result revealed that kola nut business is a profitable venture and male dominated. The women could be encouraged to invest in the business to increase their income and livelihood.



Adebayo A.A (1966). Kola diseases. Ann. Rept. Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria,127-130.

Adebowale L. A. and Odesanya B. O (2015). Effects of kola cultivation on soil fertility status of selected kolanut plantations in Ogun State, Western Nigeria. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 5(5)129-136.

Adejompo F (2014). The Impact of Kolanut Production on the Economy of Akoko South West Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 11 (2): pages.

Agbeniyi, S.O, and Fawole B (1999).
Effects of curing and pre-storage die treatments on mould of kolanuts. Eur. J. Food Res. Technol., 208: 447-449.

Agbeniyi , S.O, Otuonye, A.H, and Adedeji, A.R (2000). Mycoflora Associated with Post Harvest Processing stages of kolanuts ( Cola nitida vent Schott and Endlicher). J. Food Technol. Afr., 5(4): 129-131.
Aiboni V. U and Ogunkunle A. O (1988). An index of soil productivity for cassava and yam on the basement complex soil in south western Nigeria. J. of Science Research, 4(1);77-85.

Akinbode A. A (1982). Kolanut production and trade in Nigeria. NISER Publication, p 1-22.

Alademerin, E. A. and Odusina, O. A. (2009). Land Use in Agriculture. Royal Link Press, Ogun State, Nigeria In K. M. Makinde, A. O. Ayegbokiki, & O. A. Sotunde (2013). Accounting for employment generation and expansion: A tool for insecurity in Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management. 7(31): 3063-3068.

Asogwa E.U., Mokwunye F.C., Otuonye A.H., Oluyole K.A., Ndubwku T.C.N and Uwagboe E.O (2011).Kolanut production, processing and marketing in the south eastern states of Nigeria, African Journal of pant science, 5(10): 547-551

Babatunde, B.B, and Hamzat, R.A (2005). Effects of feeding graded levels of kolanut husk meal on the performance of cockrels. Nigerian Journal on Animal Production, 32(1): 61-66.

Beattie G. B (1970). Soft drink flavours: Their history and characteristics. 1: Cola for kola flavours. The Flavour Industry. 390 – 394.

Central Bank of Nigeria, and Nigeria Institute of Social and Economics Research (1992). The Impact of S.A.P on the Nigeria Agricultural and Rural Life CBN/NISER National Studies.

Daramola, A.M (1978). Insect Pests of cola in Nigeria. Res. Bull. CRIN, Ibadan, 3: 33.
Moloney, A. (1887). Sketch of the Forestry of West Africa. Sampson Low, London.
National survey on Agricultural Exportable Commodities (2013). 31.

.Ndagi, F.D., Babalola, I. U., Mokwunye, C. F., Anagbogu, I. A., Aderolu, O., Ugioro, E. U.,Asogwa, M., Idrisu, and Mokwunye F. C. (2012). Potentials and Challenges of Kolanut Production in Niger State, Nigeria. International Scholarly Research Network

Obeng E.T, and Brown N. (2001). Cola nitida and Cola acuminata. A State of Knowledge Report undertaken for The Central African Regional Program for the Environment. Oxford Forestry Institute Department of Plant Sciences University of Oxford United Kingdom.

Oladokun M. A. O. (2000). “Objectives and achievements in Kola propagation. Research paper presented at a symposium to mark the 21st Anniversary of the Establishment of CRIN,”

Olunloyo, O. A. (1979). Fungi associated with deterioration of stored kola nuts. Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1: 51-59.
Opeke, L. K. (1992). Tropical tree crops. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan.

Odebode A. C, and Olunloyo OA (1989). Important diseases of kola: In Progress in Tree Crop Research, A commemorative book to mark the 25th anniversary of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria. 111-114.

Oguntuga, D.B.A. (1975). Chemical composition and potential commercial uses of kola nuts, Cola nitida (Vent) Schoot and Endlicher. Ghana J. Agric Sci., 8: 121-125.

Russell, T. A. (1955). The kola of Nigeria and the Cameroons. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 32, 210-240.

Purseglove, J. W. (1968). Tropical crops: Dicotyledons, Longmans Green and Co Ltd, London.