COMPARATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FIVE BRANDS OF CIPROFLOXACIN SOLD IN LAGOS STATE
he antimicrobial activity of five brands (A, B, C, D and E) of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets commonly sold in Lagos Nigeria, were compared and assessed against susceptible clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serotypetyphi). Susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration test and the bactericidal activity were determined. All sampled brands were within their shelf life. Most (60%) of the sampled brands were made in India while the remaining 40% were made in Nigeria. All the brands complied with the official specification in British Pharmacopeia (BP) for uniformity of weight as they show less than 5% deviation in weight. The mean antibacterial activities of the brands at 25µg/ml were found to be within the range of 38.0mm to 42.2mm zone of inhibition while the MICs range between 0.012µg/ml to 1.5µg/ml.
All the sampled brands were effective against all the test organisms to varying degree with brands A and E been more potent while brand D was the least effective. The order of MICs (decreasing order of potency) was D>B>C>A>E for Staphylococcus aureus and D>C>B>E>A for Escherichia coli while that of Salmonella enterica serotypeTyphiwas D>B>C>A>E. The bactericidal activity of each ciprofloxacin brand D and E are concentration-dependent; with brand E more active at all tested concentrations.
Adeniyi, B. A., Fong, H. H. S., Pezzuto, J. M., Luyengi, L., Odelola, H. A. 2000. Antibacterialactivity of diospyrin, isodiospyrin, and bisisodiospyrinfrom Diospyros piscatoria (Gurke) [Ebenaceae]. Phytotherapy Research14:112-117.
Adeniyi, B. A., Odufowoke, R.O., Olaleye, S.B. 2006. Antibacterial and Gastro-protectiveproperties of Eucalyptus torelliana (Myrtaceae) crudeextracts. Int. Journal of Pharmacol. 2(3):362-365
Bennett, P. N., Brown, M. J. 2003. Clinical Pharmacology 9th edition. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, London, Pp 232-233.
Bernard, P. P., Patrice, T., Jacques, P. 1999. Assess to Essential Drugs in Poor Countries. A Loss battle, The Journal of the American Medical Association281: 361-67.
British Pharmacopoeia (B.P), 2004. Standard Method for analysis of antimicrobial. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, Vol. III.
Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith, eds. 2005. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-142280-3
De Sarro, A., De Sarro, G 2001. Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones. An overview on mechanistic aspects. Curr. Med. Chem.8(4): 371–384.
Fawole, M. O., Osho, B. A. 2004. Laboratory Mannual of Microbiology. Spectrum books Limited, Ibadan. Pp. 22-28.
Guada, B. G., Seetharamppa, J. 2003. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of fluoroquinolones and antiallergic drugs in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Ind. Sci;19(3):161 –164
Hashimoto, H. 2000. Why Antimicrobial Agents Become Ineffective: Disease-causing Bacteria Are Evolving. Chuokoron- Shinsha, Inc. pp 61-65.
Howard, P. M., Pinney, R. J., Smith J. T 1993. Contributions of post antibiotic lag and repair-recovery to the post-antibiotic effects of ciprofloxacin on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Chemotherapy 39 22-31.
Ivanov, D. V., Budanov, S. V 2006. Ciprofloxacin and antibacterial therapy of respiratory tract infections. Antibiot. Khimioter. 51 (5): 29–37.
Kavanagh, F., 1972. Analytical Microbiology. Vol. II, Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN-13: 9780124035027, pp: 11.
Leibovitz, E., Dror, Y. 2006. The use of fluoroquinolones in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 18 (1): 64–70.
Lester, S. C., Del Pilar Pla, M., Wang, F., Perez Schael, I., Jiang, H., O'Brien, T. F. 1990. The carriage of Escherichia coli resistant to antimicrobial agents by healthy children in Boston, in Caracas, Venezuela, and in Qin Pu, China. N Engl J Med 323, 285–289.
Lode, H.S., Hokffkn, G., Borner, K. 1994. Use of Fluoroquinolones in Lower respiratory tract infections. Int. Journal of Antimicrobial Agent4suppl. 2: 547-552.
McConnell, J. M. 2008. Benzodiazepine tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal syndromes and interactions with fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Br J Gen Pract. 58(550): 365–366.
Mackie T. J., MacCartney J. E. 1989. Practical Medicinal Microbiology 13th Editorial Churchill Livingstone, New York Pp. 161-180.
Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J. M. 2006. Brock biology of microorganisms. (11th ed). Pearson.
Masland T., Marshall R. 1990. The pill pirates. Newsweek, 18–23pp.
Miles, A. A., Misra, S. S 1938. The estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood. J. Hygiene 38: 732-49.
Mukhtar, M. D.,Chedi, B. Z. Aliyu, M. Umar, M. S., Abdullahi, A. A. 2009. In-Vitro Assessment of Some Oral Ciprofloxacin Brands Traded in Kano – Nigeria International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences2 (1): 13-17
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)(1994). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Proposed Standard. NCCLS document M31-P (ISBN 1- 56238-258-6). NCCLS, 771 East Lancaster Avenue,Villanova, PA 19085, USA.
Owens, R. C., and Ambrose, P. G. (2005). Antimicrobial safety: focus on fluoroquinolones. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 Suppl 2: S144–57.
Singh, N. and Yu V. L. (2000). Emerging issue in Antibiotic Resistance in Blood borne infections. American Journal Respir Crit Care Made. 161:1610-16.
Solomkin, J. S., Mazuski, J. E, Bradley, J. S., Rodvold, K. A., Goldstein E. J., Baron, E. J., O’Neil, P. J, Chow, A. W., Dellinger, E. P., Eachampati, S. R., Gorbach, S., Hilfilker M., May, A. K., Nathens, A. B., Sawyer, R. G., Bartlett, J. G. 2010. Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis.50 (2): 133–164.
Willey, J. M., Sherwood, L. M. Woolverton, C. J. 2008. Prescott, Harvey and Klein’s Microbiology (7th ed).Mc Graw-Hill companies New York. Pp 40-75.
WHO 1987. Standard Methods for testing drug quality efficacy and potency. Manual for Laboratory Investigations of Acute enteric infections, HO/CDS.