• O. O. SOYINKA Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria
  • T. J. SONEYE Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria
Keywords: Chicken egg shell, di-calcium phosphate, substitution, Clarias gariepinus, diet


The effects of substituting di-calcium phosphate (DCP.) with chicken egg shell (CES.) on the growth, haematology and biochemistry of Clarias gariepinus were investigated for ten weeks in a feeding experiment. One hundred and fifty juveniles of Clarias gariepinus were fed at varying inclusion levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% CES meals. Significant difference occurred (P < 0.05) in the mean weight gain (MWG) (35.54±5.69), average feed intake (AFI) (0.8029±0.0967) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (1.48±0.18) of the fish, with the highest values in the fish fed 25%CES. while the lowest occurred at 75% substitution level.. In the haematological parameters, red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels were highest in the 50% CES. WBC values recorded in the fish fed with the test ingredients were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The biochemical analysis showed that the urea values observed in the fish fed with the test feed were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control with the highest value recorded in diet 50% CES. In conclusion, chicken egg shell could be substituted with di-calcium phosphate (DCP) up to 25% and or 50%level of substitution in Clarias gariepinus diet without any negative effects on the growth and feed efficiency.



Adedeji, O.B., Okocha, R.C. 2011.Constraint to Aquaculture Development in Nigeria and Way Forward. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Nigeria.7(7): 1133-1140

Adelakun, K.M., Ogundiwin, D.I.,Ajagbe, S.O., Ijagbemi A.B. 2012. Sustainable Aquaculture Practise: A Profitable Venture in Nigeria. Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, pp 265-272.

Adeyemi, O. A., Fashina, O. E., Balogun, M. O. 2000. Utilization of full-fat Jatropha seed in Broiler diet: Effect on haematological parameters and blood chemistry. In: Proc 25th Annual Conference Nig. Soc. Anim. Prod. (NSAP) 19th -23rd March, 2000, Umudike, pp: 108-109.

AIFP 2004. Inventory of feed producers in Nigeria. Published by Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries Project. Annex II of the National Special Program for Food Security with the Agriculture Development Program in all states and FCT Abuja, Nigeria. pp.1-8.

Akinrotimi, O.A., Gabriel, U.U 2012. Haematological Profiles of Clarias gariepinus Brood Fish Raised in Water Recirculating Aquaculture System. Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research. 2 (2) : 97 – 103.

Awosanya, B., Joseph, J.K., Apata D.F., Ayoola M.A. 1999. Performance, blood chemistry and carcass quality attributes of rabbit. Int. Trop. J. Anim. Sci. 2: 89-96.

Ayoola, S.O. 2011. Haematological Characteristics of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed with Poultry Hatchery Waste. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment.2(1): 18-23.
Ayoola, S.O., Maduekwe, I.A. 2012. Biochemical and haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed with Diets containing Mytilus edulis shell at varying levels. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.7(6): 468-474.

Brown, J. A., Clime, T. R. 1972.Nutrition and haematological values. Journal of Animal Science.35: 211-218.

Burley, R.W., Vadehra, D. V. 1989. The egg shell and shell membranes: Properties and synthesis. The Avian Egg, Chemistry and Biology. John Wiley, New York.25–64 pp.

Jamu, D.M., Ayinla, O.A. 2003. Potential for the development of aquaculture in Africa NAGA 26:9-13.

Joshi, P. K., Bose, M. and Harish, D. (2002). Haematological changes in the blood of Clarias batrachus exposed to mercuric chloride. Ecotoxicological Environmental Monitoring 12 (2): 119- 122

Nakano, T., Ikama, N.I. and Ozimek, L.(2003).Chemical composition of egg shell and shell membranes. Poult. Sci.82: 510-514.
National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington D.C; National Academy Press (1993).

Nwanna, L.C., Adebayo, I.A. and Omitoyin, B., (2009). Effect of graded levels of phosphorus on growth and mineral concentration in giant African catfish, Heterobranchus bi-dorsalis. African Journal of Biotechnology.816): 3947-3953.

Ranjna, C. (1999). Practical Clinical Biochemistry Method and Interpretation, Jaypee Brother Medical publishers Ltd. New Delhi, alcium and Phosphorus sources for poultry feeds. University of Arkansaas, Fayetteville, AR UIndia. 267pp.

Ross, L.G. and Ross, B. (1999). Anasthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals. 2nd Edn., Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK., ISBN: 0-63205252X, 176pp.

Steven, C. and Helfrick, L.A (2009). Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences; Virginia Tech. Aquaculture, 420-456:1-4 Waldroup, P.W. (1997). CSA, 21pp.