AMELIORATION OF ARSENIC-INDUCED TOXICITY BY ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTUS AMARUS LINN AND VITAMIN C IN MALE ALBINO RATS
The ameliorative effect of ethanol leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus (EEPA) and vitamin C in arsenic-induced toxicity was studied. Thirty-six (36) male albino rats divided into six groups of six (6) rats each were used for the study. Arsenic toxicity was induced in three of the groups by daily intake of 100 ppm of arsenic as Dimethylarsenate (DMA) in their drinking water. Two of the arsenic-exposed groups were treated with 200 and 500 mg/kg bwt of EEPA and vitamin C respectively. The third group was not treated during arsenic exposure. The fourth and fifth groups were positive control for P. amarus and Vitamin C respectively, while another group served as the normal control. All treatments were done orally for six weeks. The effects of treatments on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and liver function were thereafter studied. Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in plasma and lymphocytes of untreated arsenic-exposed rats compared to the control group. Arsenic increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, while triacylglycerol concentration was reduced significantly. Treatments with EEPA and Vitamin C however ameliorated the dyslipidemia observed in arsenic-exposed groups. Exposure to DMA increased plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of the animals, while plasma activity of ALT in rats treated with Vitamin C was not different compared to the control. Both treatments however, had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the activity of plasma AST. P. amarus may therefore play a role in ameliorating arsenic-induced dyslipidemia in male albino rats.
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