EFFECT OF EXTRUSION PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF A LOCALLY DEVELOPED EXTRUDER ON THE PRODUCT TEMPERATURE OF SELECTED STARCH CROPS

  • F. T. FAYOSE Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
  • Z. HUAN Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Keywords: Extrusion variables, product temperature, cassava, starch, flour, maize, wheat, extrudates

Abstract

Product temperature is a very important system parameter as well as an indicator of extrusion process. In this study, the product temperature response of a single screw extruder developed locally was investigated for the extrusion process of the flour and starch of maize and cassava which are grown in Nigeria in large quantity but with high post-harvest losses. These were compared with wheat flour which is commonly used for the production of alimentary pastes. A factorial experiment in completely randomized design was employed to study the effect of extrusion variables: feed moisture (30, 40, 50 %), extruder temperature (40, 70, 100oC) built up by varying the duration of sampling and screw speed (100, 150, 200 rpm) on Product temperature.   A maximum temperature of 150oC was attained in 30 minutes through viscous dissipation and up to a moisture loss of 55% w.b. Also, product temperature is strongly related to the starch type and the extrusion process parameters under study. Product temperature decreased with increasing moisture content. The highest values of product temperature were demonstrated by maize starch and cassava flour extrudates while the lowest values were observed on maize flour and wheat flour extrudates. Generally, it was easier for cassava to cook/gelatinize under the heat provided by the extruder. Maize starch requires more shear/cooking to form than cassava starch. This extruder is by far more cost efficient for cassava than other products i.e. Maize and wheat. Process Parameters were expected to have effects on the product temperature of the final extrudates. Thus, model-fitting using response surface methodology was performed to examine their effect on product temperature. Quadratic coefficients fit the extrusion data very well, better than linear models. Furthermore, additional research could optimize product temperature for a specific product application. The equations relating the various dependent and independent variables were established to predict the performance of the machine.

 

 

 

References

Adetunji, M.O. 2004. Post Harvest Technology as a Panacea to Food Security and Economic Development. An Address at the National Workshop on Post Harvest Technology as a Panacea To Food Security and Economic Development South West Zone 5th-7th April 2004.

Akanbi, C. T., Ade-Omowaye, B. I., Ojo, A., and Adeyemi, I. A. 2003. Effect of Processing Factors on Rheological Properties of Ogi. Intl. J. of Food Properties, 6(3): 405–418.

AOAC 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D. C. pp.710.

Balogun, S.A. 2000. Root and Tuber Crops: The OGADEP Experience on Cassava. A presentation at the inauguration of the State Agro-Processing and Marketing Expansion Group, Federal Agro Processing and Marketing Expansion Group, Federal Dept. of Agriculture, Abuja.

Bouvier, J.M. 2001. Breakfast cereals In Guy, R 2001. (Ed) Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications. Wood head Publishing Limited and CRC press LLC, Cambridge, England.

CBN 2003. Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletins and Annual Report.

Chang, K. C. and Halek, G. W. 1991. Analysis of Shear and Thermal History during Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extrusion. J. of Food Sci. 56 (2): 518.

Chessari, C.J.and Sellahewa, J.N. 2001. Effective Process Control in Guy, R 2001. (Ed) Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications. Wood head publishing limited and CRC press LLC, Cambridge, England.

Dixon, A.G.O; Ssemakula, G; Maziya- Dixon, B; Caballos, H. and Fregene, M. 2007. Genetic Enhancement of Protein Content in Cassava Storage Roots. Cassava Utilization Programme, IITA. www.iita.org.

East Africa Agribusiness Magazine 2013.You can become a millionaire from cassava farming October, 2013 Edition retrieved at http://ea-agribusiness.co.ug/morbi-in-sem-quis-dui-placerat on 14/10/2013
Fayose, F.T. 2009. Development and performance evaluation of a single- screw starch extruder. Ph.D. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Nigeria.

Fayose, F.T; Ogunlowo, A.S., Agbetoye, L.A.S. 2009. The Development and Preliminary Testing of an Indigenous Food Extruder. Proceeding of 3rd WASAE Conference, Ile Ife, 2009. pg 61.

Frame, N. D. 1994. The Technology of Extrusion Cooking. Blackie Academic and Professional, New York.

Hashimoto, J. M. & Grossmann, M. V. E. 2003. Effects of extrusion conditions on quality of cassava bran/cassava starch extrudates. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 38: 511–517

International Starch 2005. Memorandum on Tapioca (Cassava) Starch, International Starch Institute, Science Park Aarhus, Denmark.

Lam, C. D., Flores, R. A. 2003. Effect of Particle Size and Moisture Content on Viscosity of Fish Feed. Cereal Chem. 80(1): 20-24.

Liang, M; H.E. Huff, and Hsieh, F. H. 2002. Evaluating Energy Consumption and Efficiency of a Twin – Screw Extruder. Journal of Food Sci. 67 (5): 1803-1807.

Lin, S.; H.E. Huff, Hsieh, F. 2008. Texture and Chemical Characteristics of Soy Protein Meat Analog Extruded at High Moisture. Journal of Food Science. 65 (2): Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008.

Lo, T. E., Moreira, R. G., Castell – Perez, M. E. 1998. Modeling Product Quality during Twins – Screw Food Extrusion. Trans. of the ASAE 41(6) 1729 – 1738.

Mottaz, J., Bruyas, L., Clextral, F. 2001. Optimised Thermal Performance in Extrusion in Guy, R (2001) (Ed) Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications. Wood head Publishing Limited and CRC press LLC, Cambridge, England.

Mulegeta, 2011. Industrial Use of Maize Grains in Ethopia In. eds. Worku, M., Twumasi Afriyie, S., Wolde, L., Tadesse, B., Demisie, G., Bogale, G., Wegary, D., Prasanna, B.M., Meeting the challenges of global climate change and food security through innovative maize research. Proceedings of the National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, 3; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 18-20 April, 2011:286-271

Prabhu, N. V., Sharp, K. A., 2005. Heat Capacity in Proteins. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 56: 521–48.

O’ Connor, O.C. 1987. Extrusion Technology for the Food Industry, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London.

Olkku, J., Hassinen, H., Antila. J, Pohjanpalo, H., Linko, P. 1980. Automation of HTST- Extrusion Cooker, Food Process Engineering Linko P, Malkki, and Olkku J. (1980) Food processing systems. Applied Science Publisher Ltd. England. 1, 777 – 790.

Thymi, S. Krokida, M.K. Pappa, A. and Maroulis, Z.B. 2005. Structural properties of extruded corn starch, Journal of Food Engineering. 68 (4): 519–526

Worku, M., Twumasi Afriyie, S., Wolde, L., Tadesse, B., Demisie, G., Bogale, G., Wegary, D., Prasanna, B.M., 2011. Meeting the challenges of global climate change and food security through innovative maize research. Proceedings of the National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, 3 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 18-20 April, 2011:286-271

Van Zuilichem D.J., Stolp, W. 1987. Survey of the Present Extrusion Cooking Techniques in the Food and Confectionery Industry, In: Connor, O.C. (1987) Extrusion Technology for the Food Industry, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London. P. 1

Zweytick G. 2008. Wheat Crisps - Extrusion Cooking Technology In: Margarida Vieira, Peter Ho Eds., Experiments in Unit Operations and Processing of Foods 5, 143-149; Springer, New York; ISBN 978-0-387-33513-1.
Published
2014-02-04
Section
Articles