Water Quality Evaluation of Hand-dug Wells in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. O. Ayantobo, G. O. Oluwasanya, O. A. Idowu, O. A. Eruola

Abstract


In many countries around the world, including Nigeria, access to potable water has become a mirage. Exploitation of groundwater through the construction of hand-dug wells is a major source of drinking water for majority of the populace. The need to assess the quality of water from this source to ascertain the role of well construction methods has now become imperative because of the health impacts on individuals. Random surveys of three classifications of hand-dug wells were done between June and October 2010, in Ibadan, Nigeria. One hundred and one (101) hand-dug wells were selected. A standard form was used for capturing data used for the classification of the wells into protected, semi protected and unprotected. Standard laboratory methods were employed for the analysis of electrical conductivity, pH, Temperature, Chlorides, Nitrate, E. coli and Total Coliform Count. Results show that nitrate concentration, E. Coli and total coliform counts are more pronounced in wells that are installed close to domestic refuse waste, abattoir, pit latrine, stagnant water, and drainages. The pronounced concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the pollution sources irrespective of well classification. Protected wells gave better water quality relative to semi-protected and unprotected wells. The paper recommends regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices, and regulation of self supply well construction and design.


Keywords


Hand dug well, Groundwater, Protected well, Semi-protected well, Un-protected well

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adeyemi, O., Oloyede, O.B., Oladiji, A.T., 2007. Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of leachate-contaminated groundwater, Asian J. Biochem, 2 (5), pp. 343348

Ayoade, J. (1979), Land use changer and water quality in impounded water supply dams. Public perception of flood hazards in Niger Delta

Collins s (2000): Hand dug shallow wells. SKAT publications, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Cosgrove, W.J. and Rijsberman, F.R., (2000): World Water Vision: Making Water Everybodys Business. Earth scan Publication Ltd., UK, ISBN: 185383730X, pp: 108

Gomez, J.D. and Nakat, A.C., (2002): Community participation in water and sanitation, Water Int., 27: 343-353. DOI: 10.1080/02508060208687014

Lloyd, D. S., Koenings, J. P., and LaPerriere, J. D., (1987): Effects of turbidity in fresh waters of Alaska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7 pp. 1833

Murcott, S. (2007): Water sources (improved and un-improved) and water supply, MIT 11.4 79 J/1.851J, March 5, 2007, WATSAN planning, http://ocw.mit.edu/NR

National Bureau of Statistics, (2006): Nigeria provisional results for 2006 population census

Oluwasanya, G. O., (2009): Better Safe than Sorry: Towards Appropriate Water Safety Plans for Urban Self Supply Systems in developing countries, PhD. Thesis, Cranfield University, UK, 459 pp.

Oluwasanya, G., Smith, J., and Carter, R., (2011): Self Supply Systems: Urban dug wells in Abeokuta, Nigeria, Journal of Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, Vol. 11 (2), IWA, UK, pp. 172 178

Seamus, C., (2000): Hand dug shallow wells: principles of Hand dug wells, Series manuals on drinking water supply Vol. 5, pp. 29-33

Shimizu T., Agatomo, H., Kigotake, T., (1980): Bacteria contamination of drinking water from wells in Miyazaki, Miyazaki University, Japan, pp. 21-28

UNICEF, (2005): National rural water supply and Sanitation investment program, Final draft, 1 pp

Watt S., Wood W., (1977): Hand dug wells and their construction (London IT publication)

WHO, (2004): Guidelines for drinking-water Quality, Health Criteria and other supporting Information, 2nd Edition, Vol. 2, World Health Organization, Geneva

WHO (2006), Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Recommendations, 3rd Edition, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland

WHO, (2011): Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.