Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Lower Coastal Plain Sand Aquifer for Varied Uses
The study assessed the water quality of lower coastal plain sand (LCPS) aquifers for varied uses. 44 samples were collected from hand dug wells. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonates and sulfate were determined using standard methods. Result shows that about 95.4% of the measured EC accounts for low enrichment of salts while 2.3% accounts for both medium and high enrichment of salts. The TDS values show that about 95.5% of the samples are fresh water while 4.5% are brackish. Factor Analysis extracted four factors and explained 91.71 % of total variance. The RSC value shows that about 18.2%, 13.6% and 15.9% of the samples represent suitable, marginal and unsuitable water, respectively, for irrigation purpose. Furthermore, computed MR values indicate that about 75% of the samples are suitable while the remaining 25% are not suitable for irrigation purpose. PI values also show that 63.6% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation while 34.1% and 2.3% are marginally suitable and suitable, respectively. For industrial water uses, 6.8% of the samples exceed the prescribed WHO HCO3 limit while 2.3% and 11.4% exceed the SO4 and TH limits, respectively. 93.2% of the samples exceed the prescribed pH limits, while TDS and Cl exceed the standard limit in about 4.5% and 2.3% of the samples, respectively. The WQI ranged between 21.59 to 550.97mg/L with about 31.8% representing excellent water quality while 50%, 15.9% and 2.3% indicate good, poor and water unfit for drinking purposes, respectively. The paper recommends adequate protection and thorough treatment of the water for human consumption.
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