Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia Coli Isolates from Human, Pet, Livestock and Poultry Living in Close Contact

  • Shittu B. O.
  • Nwagboniwe A. C.
  • George O. O.
Keywords: Antibiotics resistance, Escherichia coli, livestock, poultry, close contact.


Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli in human, pet, livestock and poultry living in close contact was carried out. A total of 130 fecal samples were obtained from human and animals.  Out of 124 isolates with characteristics E. coli morphology obtained on Eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, only forty (32.3%) isolates were identified as E. coli.  Of all the E. coli isolates, 100% resistance to cotrimozaxole was obtained from cattle, poultry and goats while human, sheep and dog showed 92.3%, 81.8% and 58.3% resistance respectively.  Isolates from dog showed no resistance to gentamicin, amoxicillin and augmentin, but exhibited more than 58.3% resistance to other antibiotics. Isolates from cattle, poultry, sheep and goats were generally resistant to all the antibiotics tested with percentage resistance ranging from 14.29% (augmentin) to 100% (cotrimozaxole).  Notable is the increasing resistance of both the human and animal isolates to some antibiotics that are considered highly effective against resistant E. coli such as ofloxacin (31.8%), nalidixic acid (50.0%) and nitrofurantoin (76.1%).


Bettelheim, K.A. 1997. Escherichia coli in the normal flora of humans and animals. In: Escherichia coli: Mechanism of virulence. M. Sussman, Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beutin, L. 1999. Escherichia coli as a pathogen in dogs and cats. Veterinary Research 30: 2/3): 285-298.

Beutin, L., Geiger, D., Streinruck, H., Zimmermann, S., Scheutz, F. 1993. Prevalence and some properties of verotoxin (shiga-like toxin)-producing Escherichia coli in seven different species of healthy domestic animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31(9): 2483-2488.

Bradford, P.A., Peterson, P.J., Fingerman, I.M., White, D.G. 1999. Characterization of expanded spectrum cephalosporin resistance in E. coli isolates associated with bovine calf diarrheal disease. Journal of Antimicrobial chemotherapy 44: 311-318.

Graves, A.K. Hagedorn, C., Teetor A., Mahal, M., Booth, A.M., Reneau, R.B. 2002. Antibiotic resistance profiles to determine sources of fecal contamination in a rural Virginia watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality 31: 1300-1308.

Koplan, J.P. 2000. Statement of J.P. Koplan, Director, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Before the Committee on Appropriations: United States Senate. Sept. 20, 2000. Available at

Levy, S.B., FitzGerald, G.B., Macone, A.B. 1976. Changes in intestinal flora of farm personnel after introduction of a tetracycline-supplemented feed on a farm. New England Journal of Medicine 95(11):583-588.

McEwen, S.A., Fedorka-Cray, P.J. 2002. Antimicrobial use and resistance in animals. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34S (3):S93-S106

Nataro, J.P., Kaper, J.B. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11(1). 142-201.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 2001. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. 5th ed., vol. 20: No.2 Approved standard M.F. A5. National Committee for clinical laboratory standards.

Okeke, I.N., Lamikanra, A., Edelman, R. 1999. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 18-27.
Okeke, I.N., Lamikanra, A., Steinruck, H., Kaper, J.B. 2000. Characterization of Escherichia coli strains from cases of childhood diarrhea in provincial Southwestern Nigeria. J. of Clin. Microbiol 38 (1): 7-12.

Oppegaard, H., Steinum, T.M., Wasteson, Y. 2001. Horizontal transfer of a multi-drug resistant plasmid between coliform bacteria of human and bovine origin in a farm environment. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67(8):3732-3734.

Puente, J.L., Finley, B.B. 2001. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. In: Principles of bacterial pathogenesis. E.A. Groisman (ed.), Academic press, San Diego, Calif. P 387-486.

Rodriguez, J., Thomazini, C.M., Lopez, C.A.M., Dantos, L.O. 2004. Concurrent infection in a dog and colonization in a child with a human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli clone. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42(3): 1388-1389.

Scott, T.M. Rose, J.B., Jenkins, T.M., Farrah, S.R., Lukasik, J. 2002. Microbial Source Tracking: Current methodology and future directions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5796-5803.