• P. A.S. SOREMI
  • V. I.O. OLOWE
  • J. O. AZEEZ



Two field trials were conducted at Abeokuta and Ibadan with the aim of investigating the performance of upland rice (NERICA® 2) in inland valley Rainforest / Savannah transitory zone of South West Nigeria as influenced by tillage practise, seeding method and spacing. The trials were arranged in split-split plot fitted to randomised completely blocked design, replicated thrice. The main plot was tillage (minimum tillage and conventional); sub-plot was seeding method (dry dibble and transplanting) and
the sub-sub plot was spacing (15 cm × 15 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm and 25 cm × 25 cm). Dry dibble had significantly more number of tillers, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation than transplanted rice at both locations. Most growth parameters, at both locations had a significant increase with increasing
plant population density, except dry matter accumulation. At both locations, transplanted rice had a significant longer flowering and maturity duration than dibble method. In Abeokuta, conventional tillage had significantly longer panicle length than minimum tillage. Dry dibble method had significantly more number of panicle/m2 at Abeokuta, while significantly more number of grains/panicle was observed at Ibadan than transplanting. Increasing plant population density significantly depressed some yield components and yield at Ibadan.


Allison, L.E. 1965. Organic carbon. In:
Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. C.A. Black
(ed.), American Society of Agronomy, Madison,
pp. 1307-1378.
Bouman, B.A.M., Tuong, T.P. 2001. Field
water management to save water and increase
its productivity in irrigated lowland
rice. Agricultural Water Management 49: 11-30.
Bouyoucus, G.J. 1962. Hydrometer method
improved for making particle size analysis of
soil. Agronomy Journal 54: 464-465.
Dingkuhn, M., Scnier, H.F., De Datta,
S.K., Dorffling, K., Javellana, C. 1991. Relationships
between ripening-phase productivity
and crop duration, canopy photosynthesis
and senescence in transplanted and
direct-seeded lowland rice. Field Crops Research
26 (3): 327-345.
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N.,
Murtaza, G. 2009. Enhancing the performance
of transplanted coarse rice by seedpriming. Paddy Water Environment 7: 55-63.
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Wahid, A.
2006. Priming of field-sown rice seed enhances
germination, seedling establishment,
allometry and yield. Journal of Plant Growth
Regulation 49: 285-294.
Gao, X.P., Zou, C.Q., Fan, X.Y., Zhang,
F.S., Hoffland, E. 2006. From flooded to
aerobic condition in rice cultivation: consequences
for Zink uptake. Plant Soil 280:41-
Giertz, S. 2004. Analyse der hydrologischen
Prozesse in den sub-humid tropen
Westafricas unter beseonderer Berucksichtigang
der Landnuttzung on Beispel des
Aguima-Einzugsgebietes in Benin. Doctoral
Thesis. Bonn. 137pp.
Giertz, S., Hiepe, C., Hollermann, B.,
Diekkruger, B. 2010. Impact of global change
on water resources and soil degradation in Benin.
In: Speth, P., Christoph, M., Diekkrugger,
B. (eds), Impact of global change on hydrological
cycle in West and Northwest Africa.
Springer, Heidelberg, Germany. pp. 484-
Gomez, K.A. 1972. Techniques for field experiments
with rice. International Rice Research
Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.pp.40.
Gravois, K.A., Helms, R.S. 1992. Path
analysis of rice yield and yield components
as affected by seeding rate. Agronomy Journal
84 (1): 1-4.
Gupta, R.K., Lodha, J.K., Singh, S.,
Sing, R.J., Jat, M.L., Saharawat, Y.,
Singh, V.P., Singh, S.S., Sah, G., Gill,
M.S., Alam, M., Migeeb, H., Singh,
U.P., Mann, R., Pathak, H., Singh, B.S.,
Bhattacharya, P., Malik, R.K. 2006. Production
Technology for direct seeded rice.
In: Rice wheat consortium Technical Bulletin 8.
New Delhi, India. p.16.
Jackson, M.L. 1962. Soil chemical analysis.
New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd,
Kirk, G.J.D., Solivas, J.L., Begg, C.B.M.
1994. The rice root-soil interface. In: Kirk,
G.J.D. (ed.), Rice roots: Nutrient and water use.
International Rice Research Institute. Philippines,
Los Banos. pp. 1-10.
McLean, E.O. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirements.
In Page, A.L., R.H. Miller and
R.R. Keeney (eds.). Methods of soil analysis.
Part 2- Chemical and microbiological properties.
(2nd Edition). Agronomy 9: 199-223.
Min, H., Yingbin, Z., Peng, J., Bing, X.,
Yuehua, F., Zhaowei, C., Yali. M. 2011.
Yield component differences between direct
seeded and transplanted super hybrid rice.
Plant Production Science 14 (4): 331- 338.
Mitchell, J., Fukai, S., Basnayake, J. 2004.
Grain yield of direct seeded and transplanted
rice in rainfed lowlands of South East Asia.
In: T. Fischer, New Directions for a Diverse
Planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop
Science Congress, Brisbane, Convention Centre.
26: 1-6.
Moldenhauser, K.A.K., Gibbons, J.H.
2003. Rice morphology and Development.
In: C.W. Smith and R.H. Dilday (eds.). Rice:
Origin, History, Technology and Production. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc. New Jersey.108-128.
Murphy, J., Riley, J.P. 1962. A modified
single solution method for determination of
phosphate in natural waters. Analytical chemistry Acta 27:31-36.
Ogban, I., Babalola, O. 2003. Soil Characteristics
and constraint to crop production
in inland valley bottoms in South Western
Nigeria. In: Agriculture Water Management 61:
13 – 28.
Olsen, S.R., Dean, L.A. 1965. Phosphorus
in Black, C.A. (eds.). Methods of Soil
Analysis. American Society of Agronomy Monograph
9 (2): 1035-1048.
Pandey, S., Velasco, L.E. 2002. Economics
of direct seeing in Asia: patterns of
adoption and research priorities. In: Pandey
S, Mortimer M, Wade L, Tuong TP, Lopez
K, Hardy B (eds.). Direct seeding: research
issues and opportunities. International Rice
Research Institute, Philippines. pp. 3-14.
Patnak, H., Tewari, A.N., Sankhyon, S.,
Dubey, D.S., Mina, U., Virender, K.,
Jain, N., Bhatia, A. 2011. Direct-seeded
rice: Potential, performance and problem-A
review. Current Advances in Agricultural Science
3(2): 77-88.
Rao, A.N., Johnson, D.E., Sivaprasad,
B., Ladha, J.K., Mortimer, A.M. 2007.
Weed management in direct seeded rice.
Advances in Agronomy 93: 153-255.
Sahid, I.B., Hussein, M.S. 1995. The effects
of flooding and sowing depth on the
survival and growth of fine rice-weed species.
Plant Production Quarterly 10: 139-142.
Sharma, P.K., De Datta, S.K. 1986. Physical
properties and process of puddled rice
soil. In: Advances in Soil Science. Springer. New
York. pp. 139 – 178.
Wade, L.J., George, T., Ladha, J.K.,
Singh, U., Bhuiyan, S.I., Pandy, S. 1998.
Opportunities to manipulate nutrient-bywater
interaction in rainfed lowland rice system.
Field Crop Research 56: 93-112.
Walkley, A., Black, I.A. 1934. An examination
of the Degtjareff method for determining
carbon in soils: Effect of variation in digestion
conditions and of organic soil constituents.
Soil Science 63: 251-263.
Windmeijer, R.N., Andriesse, W. (eds.).
1993. Inland valleys in West Africa. An Agroecological
characterisation of rice growing environments.
Publication 52. International Institute
for Land Reclamation and Improvement,
Wageningen, The Netherlands, 160pp.
Yoshida, S. 1973. Effects of temperature on
growth of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) in a controlled
environment. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition
19: 299-310.
Zhong, X., Deny, S., Sanico, A.L., Liu,
H. 2003. Quantifying the interactive effect
of leaf nitrogen and leaf area on tillering of
rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26: 1203-1222.






Original Manuscript