USE OF FISH WASTE MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR FISH MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIETS OF AFRICAN MUD CATFISH Clarias gariepinus FINGERLINGS
Keywords:African catfish, growth, Fish meal, fish waste, protein.
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of fish waste meal (FWM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, hepatosomatic index and blood parameters of Clarias gariepinus. 150 fingerlings of C. gariepinus of average weight of 5.2Â±0.13g were stocked. Five (5) iso-nitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein in which fish meal protein (67.70%) was replaced by fish waste meal protein (45.94%) at 0% (FWM0), 25% (FWM25), 50% (FWM50), 75% (FWM75) and 100% (FWM100) levels were formulated. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. Values for growth response and nutrient utilization parameters decreased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of FWM in diets from 50% FWM inclusion level. Feed conversion ratio showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between fish fed diets FWM0 (1.25), FWM25 (1.26) and FWM50 (1.30). Net protein utilization was highest in fish fed diet FWM0 (43.62%) but not different (p>0.05) from fish fed diets FWM25 (42.82%) and FWM50 (41.11%). Hepatosomatic index was highest significantly (p>0.05) in fish fed diet FWM100 (1.13%) and lowest in fish fed diet FWM50 (0.65%). The haematological profile was higher (P<0.05) in all parameters in fish fed diets FWM0 and FWM50. Pack cell volume (PCV) was 36.2% in fish fed diet FWM0. This was statistically similar only to 35.9% of fish fed diet FWM50. From the study, it is concluded that fish waste meal can replace as much as 50% of fish meal in the diet of African catfish, C. gariepinus.Â Â Â
Anunne, P.A. 1990. Preliminary investigation on the suitability of toad meal Bufo regularis in the diet of catfish Clarias lazera J. Aquat. Sci., 5: 37-42.
A.O.A.C. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 2000. Official Method of Analysis: In Horwitz W, (Ed.), AOAC Arlington, VA, USA,1298pp.
Ayinla, O.A., Kayode, O., Idoniboye-obu, T. I. E., Oresegun, A., Adindu, V. E. 1994. Use of Tadpole meal as substitute for fish meal in the diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geofrey st, Hillaire, 1809). J. of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 9: 25-33.
Baker, D., Fitzpatrick, M.P., Dicrenfeld, E.S. 1998. Nutrient composition of selected whole invertebrates. Zoo. Biology, 17(2): 123-134.
Barnerjee, S.K., Patra, B.C, Bandoyopahyay, P., Teway, A. 2002. Changes of the blood parameters in Carp, Catla catla. J. Aquatic. Biol., 17: 79-84.
Blaxhall D.C., Daiseley, K.W. 1973 Routine Haematological Methods for use with Fish Blood. J. Fish Biolog., 5: 771-781
DeSilva S.S., Shim, K.F., Ong, A.K. 1996. An evaluation of the methods used in digestibility estimations of a dietary ingredient and comparisons on external and internal markers and time of faeces collection in digestibility studies in fish, Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner). Reproduction Nutrition Development, 30: 215-226.
Elbaraasi, H., Mezes, M., Balogh, L., Csengeri, I. 2004. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid/iron on some production traits, lipid peroxide state and amount /activity of the g[uthione redox system in African catfish Claris gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings. Aquatic Science an Fisheries abstract, 35: 256-262.
Fagbenro, O.A. 1996. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in some plant and animal-based feedstuff by Clarias (Siluriformes: Clariidae) (Sydenham 1980). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 12: 67-68.
Fasakin, E.A., Falayi, B.A., Eyo, A.A. 2000. Inclusion of poultry manure in the diet for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus). Journal of Fish. Tech., 2: 51-56.
Faturoti, E.O., Obasa, S.O., Bakare, A. L. 1998. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fed live maggots. In: Otubusin, Ezeri, and Ugwumba (Eds.). Proceedings of Nigerian Association for Aquatic Sciences Conference held in University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Nov. 30th-Dec. 2nd pp 182 â€“ 189
Huisman, E.A., Richter, C.J.J. 1987. Reproduction, growth, health control and aquacultural potential of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Aquaculture, 63(1-4): 1-14.
IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) 1990. Cassava in tropical Africa. A reference manual. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 176.
Joshi, P.K., Bose, M., Harish, D. 2002c. Heamatological changes in the blood of Clarias batrachus exposed to mercuric chloride. Ecotoxicological Environment Monitoring, 12(2): 119-122.
Kjartansson, H.S., Fivelstad, J.M., Smooth, M.J. 1988. Effect of different stocking densities on physiological parameters and growth of adult Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) reared in circular tanks. Aquaculture, 76: 61-274
Mayano, F.J., Cardenett, G., Dela Higuera, M.M. 1992. Nutritive value of diets containing a high percentage of vegetable protein in trout, Oncorhynchus myliss. Aquatic living Resources, 5: 23-29.
Meyer, D.J., Coles, E.J., Rich, L.J. 1992. Veterinary Medicine Laboratory Medicine. Interpretation of Diagnosis. W.B. Sanders Company pp 12-26
Musa, S.O., Omoregie, E. 1999. Haematological changes in mudfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) exposed to malachite green. J. Aquat. Sci., 14: 37-42.
Ogunji, J.O., Toor, S.R., Schulz, C., Kloas, W. 2008. Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Housefly Maggot Meal Magmeal) Diets. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8: 141-147.
Olivera Nova, M. A., Campus, G., Sabido, G. M., Martinez Palacois, C. A. 1990. The use of alfalfa leaf protein concentrates as a protein source in diets for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 90: 291-302.
Olsen R.E., Suontama, J., Langmyhr, E., Mundheim, H., Ring, E., Melle W., Malde, M.K., Hemre G.I. 2006 The replacement of fishmeal with Antarctic krill, Euphausia superb in diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture Nutrition, 12: 280-290.
Omotoyin, B.O. 2006. Haematological changes in the blood of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) juvenile fed poultry litter. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 18: 11-22.
Rainza-Paiva M.J.T., Ishikawa, C.M., Das Eiras, A.A., Felizardo, N.N. 2000. Haematological analysis of â€˜charaâ€™ Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum in captivity. Aquaculture, 2000. Responsible aquaculture in the new millennium. May 2-6 2000. European Aquaculture Soc. Special Pub. Nice, France, 590 pp.
Roberts, R.J. 1978 Fish Pathology. A Bailliere Tindall book, Publisher: Cassell Ltd.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 1988. A software package for solving statistical problem. V1200 model.SAS Institute Inc. Carey N.C.
Sogbesan, O.A., Ajuonu, N.D., Ugwumba, A.A.A., Madu, C.T. 2005. Cost benefits of maggot meal as supplemented feed in the diets of Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus (Pisces-Clariidae) hybrid fingerlings in outdoor concrete tanks. Journal of Industrial and Scientific Research, 3(2): 51-55.
Sogbesan, O.A., Ugwumba, A.A.A. 2006. Bionomics evaluation of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora, Jay, 1937; Gastropoda: Limicolaria) meat meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (Burchell, 1822) Nigerian Journal of Fisheries, 2(3): 358-371.
Sogbesan, A.O., Ugwumba, A.A.A. (2008). Nutritional Evaluation of Termite (Macrotermes subhyalinus) meal as animal protein supplements in the diets of Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840).fingerlings Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8: 149-157
Tacon, A.G.J., Jackson, A. 1985. Utilization of conventional and nonconventional protein sources in practical feed. In: Cowey AM Mackie, JG Bell (eds.). Nutrition and Feeding in fish. Academic Press London. pp. 119-145.
Ugwumba, A.A.A., Ugwumba, A.O., Okunola, A.O. 2001. Utilization of Live maggot as supplementary feed on the growth of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings. Nigerian Journal of Science, 35(1): 1-7.
Viveen, W.J., Richter, C.J.J., Van Oordt, P.G.W.J., Janseen, J.A.L., Huisman, E. A. 1985. Practical manual for the culture of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Purdoc, The Hague, Netherlands, 121p.
Wilfred, O., Alegbeleye, Sam, O., Obasa, Olugbenga, O. Olude., Kehinde Otubu., Wahab Jimoh. 2011. Preliminary evaluation of the nutritive value of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.) for African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell. 1822) fingerlings Aquaculture Research, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.02844.x.