EVALUATION OF THE AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND NUTRITIVE VALUES OF TEPHROSIA BRACTEOLATA GUILL. & PERR. AND GMELINA ARBOREA ROXB PRUNNINGS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GROWTH
Keywords:Tephrosia bracteolata, Gmelina arborea, agronomic performance, stage of growth
This study was carried out to investigate the growth, dry matter yield and chemical composition of Tephrosia bracteolata and Gmelina arborea at Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different stages of growth of T. bracteolata and G. arborea on their agronomic performance, herbage yield and nutritive value in the humid zone of Nigeria. Data were collected at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after planting (WAP). Results showed that T. bracteolata attained the height of 161 cm at 20 WAP, though not significantly different from the height at 16 WAP. The leaf number (24), branch number (7) and dry matter yield of T. bracteolata were recorded highest at 16 WAP. The height of G. arborea was on constant increase throughout the experimental period. The crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) contents of the two browse plants were highest at 8 WAP and thereafter, declined throughout the experimental period. Fibre fractions, the neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) had a least value for both browse species at 8 WAP and highest values at 20 WAP. From the study, considering the dry matter yield and nutritive value, T. bracteolata being an annual species, can be harvested at 16 WAP when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. However, planting of G. arborea should be encouraged being a perennial browse plant that will support livestock productivity during the dry season in the tropics. In conclusion, T. bracteolata and G. arborea grow rapidly and are recommended as forage of high nutritive values that meet ruminant animal protein requirements especially during the dry season.
AFNETA, 1992. Alley farming network for tropical Africa. Multipurpose Tree Screening and Evaluation. Alley Farming Training manual. 1:1-17.
AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16th edition, Washington DC, USA.
Ayoade, J. A., Ogebe, P. O., Okwori, A. J., Ogbeide, J. O. 1998. Nutritional potential of Tephrosia bracteolata leaves as a sole feed for goat. In: O. O. Oduguwa, A. O. Fanimo and O. A. Osinowo (eds.). Animal Agriculture in West Africa. The sustainability question. Proceedings of the Silver Anniversary Conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal Production 21-26 March, 1998. Pp. 53-54.
Babayemi, O. J., Demeyer, D., Fievez, V. 2004. Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci. 69 : 103- 110.
Babayemi, O. J., Bamikole, M. A., Daniel, I. O., Ogungbesan, A., Babatunde, A. 2002. Growth, nutritive value and dry matter degradability of three Tephrosia species. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 29 (2): 199-206.
Black, C. A. 1965. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy number 9(2), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.
Butterworth, M. H. 1985. Beef cattle nutrition and tropical pastures. Longman Limited, England, 490pp.
Chheda, H. R., Akinola J. O. 1971. Effects of cutting frequency and levels of applied nitrogen on productivity, chemical composition, growth components and regrowth potential of Cynodon strains. Yield, chemical composition and weed completion. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 8(1): 44-62.
Crowder, L. V., Chedda H. R. 1982. Tropical Grassland Husbandry. Longman Inc., New York. Pg. 562.
Davies, J. H. C. 1997. Phaseolus beans. In: WIEN, H.C. (ed.). The physiology of vegetable crops. CAB INTERNATIONAL. Wallingford, Oxon. UK.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F-tests. Biometrics 11: 1-42.
Fajuke, R. Y. 2002. Influence of rumensin-based supplement on the utilization of Gmelina arborea leaves by West African Dwarf sheep. Master of Agriculture Dissertation, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Pp 44.
Gohl, B. O. 1975. Tropical Feeds: Feed Information Summaries and Nutritive Values. FAO Feeds Information Centre, FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), U.N., Rome, 32pp.
Harricharan, H. J., Morris, J. and Devers, C. 1988. Mineral content of some tropical forage legumes. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad). 65(2):132-136
Larbi, A. Smith, J. W., Raji, A. M., Kurdi, I. O., Adekunle, I. O., Ladipo, D. O. 1993. Seasonal dynamics in dry matter degradation of browse in cattle, sheep and goats, Small Ruminant Research, 25: 129-140.
McDonald, P. Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Mergan, C. A. 1998. Animal Nutrition. 5th Edition. Longman, Singapore Publishers (Pte) Ltd. Singapore: 607pp.
Minson, D. T. 1981. Nutritional differences between tropical and temperate pastures. In: Grazing animal. Disciplinary Approach. World Animal Science Volume 34, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Pp 143-157.
Minson, D. T. 1990. Chemical composition and nutritive value of tropical grasses. In: P.J. Skerman and F. Riveros (Eds.). tropical Grasses, food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 23. Pp 163 â€“ 180.
Ndlovu, L. R. 1991. Complementary of forages in ruminant digestion: Theoretical considerations. In: The complementarily of Feed Resources for Animal production in Africa, J. E. S. Stares, A. N. SAID and J. A. Abdullah (eds.). Proceedings of the Joint Feed Resources Network Workshop, Gaborone, Botswana 4-8 March 1991. Pp 17-23.
Olanite, J. A., Arigbede, O.M., Jolaosho, O.A., Onifade, O.S., Alabi, B.O. 2006. Effect of cutting intervals on the dry matter yield and nutritive quality of two varieties of Panicum maximum in the humid zone of Nigeria. ASSETS Series A 6 (1): 171-180.
Olanite, J. A. 2003. Evaluation of selected grass-legume mixtures as feed for weaner calves under traditional cattle management in Ibadan, Nigeria. PhD, Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 223pp.
Ramachandran, P. K. 1993. An introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers. In cooperation with International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).
Reynolds, L., Atta-Krah, A. N., Francis, P. A. 1988. Alley farming with livestock guidelines. Humid zone Research site International Centre for Africa, Nigeria.
Said, A. N., Tolera, A. 1993. The supplementary value of forage legume hays in sheep feeding: feed intake, nitrogen retention and body weight changes. Livestock Production Science. 33:229-237.
Sibanda, H. M., Ndlovu, L. R. 1992. The value of indigenous browseable tree species in livestock production in semi-arid communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. (J.E.S. Stares, A.N. Said and J.A. Kategile (Eds.)). Proceeding of the joint feed resources networks workshop held in Gaborone, Botswana. Pp. 55-61.
Tendonkeng-Pamo, E. T., Fonteh, F. A., Tendonkeng, V., Kana, V., Boukila, B., Djaga, P., Fomewange, G. 2006. Influence of supplementary feeding with multipurpose leguminous tree leaves on kid growth and milk production in West African Dwarf goat. Small Ruminant. Research, 63: 142-149.
Tening, A. S., Tarawali, G., Adeoye, K. B., Mohammed- Saleem, M. A., Omueti, L. A. I. 1994. Management and nutrient requirements of Stylosanthes in pasture and cropping systems in the humid zone of Nigeria: A review, P.N. deLeeuw, M.A. Mohamed-Saleem and A.M. Nyamu (eds). Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on the Use of Stylosanthes in West Africa held in Kaduna, Nigeria, 26-31 October, 1992, pp. 113-1222.
Van Soest P. J., Robertson J. B., Lewis B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fibre and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583 â€“ 3597.