• A. I. ALI Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
  • T. Y. RIILWANU Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano



Climate Change, Drinking Water, Farmland, Fishing and Water scarcity


This study examined the level of water scarcity across Kazaure town, Jigawa State and the strategies employed by public and private agencies to increase their resilience toward access to affordable and safe clean water supply. Water scarcity is one of the major challenges affecting the livelihood of people in Kazaure town.  The aim of the study was to examine water scarcity at micro level, in Kazaure town. A total of 1520 samples were selected which constituted 0.4% of the total population. The respondents were selected using availability sampling at water collection points of which only 1500 questionnaires were successfully returned and 20 were not. The data was analysed using simple descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) single factor. Results revealed that 20% of the sampled population has resorted to land leasing near water sources for their farming activities, 53% has stopped dry season farming in the area of fishing, 45% of the sample respondents have stopped fishing while 56.5% indicated that they have resorted to providing their water needs by themselves. The study revealed that there are only 60 hand pump boreholes in the whole of Kazaure. The ANOVA test also indicated that there were no significant differences in terms of water sources between the settlements at 0.05 level (P 0.067) and there were significant differences in terms of water facility types between the settlements at 0.05 level of significance (P 0.046). It was established from the study that water scarcity has negatively affected livelihood activities in the study area. The paper recommends that private sectors should be encouraged to pool resources together to provide and improve water supply projects and state and local government should provide more mechanical powered bore holes in the areas for effective water supply.





Abubakar, M. K., Aminu, M. M., Abba, A., Sani, I. 2015. Phytoplankton Survey and Physico-chemical Assessment of Kazaure Dam, Nigeria. Proceedings of TheIRES 3rd International Conference, Dubai, UAE, 4th July 2015, ISBN: 978-93-85465-46-8.

Aderinto, S. O. 2018. Guns and Society in Colonial Nigeria. Indiana University Press Limited.

Akpabio, E. M. 2012 Water Supply and Sanitation Services Sector in Nigeria: The Policy Trend and Practice Constraints. Center for Development Research, University of Bonn. Working Paper Series 96. ISSN 1864‐6638

Arlosorof, S., Gerhard, T., David, W., Andrew, K .L. Otto, L, Robered, R. 1987. Community Water Supply. The hand pumps option; the World Bank Washington DC 1987.

Ayodele, A. 2000. Kazaure Emirate’ Ibadan (Nigeria). Nigerian Traditional States World Statement. Ben Cahoon limited

Basorun J.O., Lawal O.L (2015). Access To Safe Water In Akure: A Paradox In Nigerian Urbanized Regions” International Journal of Emerging Knowledge. 3(3): 39 – 45.

Danbatta, U.A 2009. On the Evolution of the Kazaure Schist Belt of NW Nigeria: A Re-interpretation. Global Journal Geological Sciences 8(2):207-216.

Gusikit, R.B., Lar U.A 2014. Water Scarcity and the impending Water related Conflicts in Nigeria: A Re appraisal”. Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology. 8 (11): 44 – 56.

Idowu, D. L 2017. Causes, Consequences and Resolution Of Environmental Conflict In Nigeria”. International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research ISSN: 2455-8834 Volume: 02, Issue: 01

Ishaku, H.T, Rafee, M. M., Ajayi, A.P. and Haruna, A. 2011. Water Supply Dilemma in Nigeria Rural Communities: Looking towards the sky for an answer. A journal of water Resource and protection Vol.3: 598 – 606.

Isma’il, M., Salisu, A., Yusuf, S., Muhammad, Z.D 2013. Spatial analysis of Urban Growth in Kazaure Local Government, Jigawa State. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences ISSN-0976-4380. 4(1):47-60

Kelechi, I. L. 2012. The Relationship between Water Scarcity Awareness by Transnational Nigerians and its Effects on the Willingness to Contribute to Water Scarcity Relief efforts in Nigeria. An un published thesis at College of Community health University of ILLinois at Urbana-champaign.

Krejcie, R.V., Morgan, D.W. 1970. Determining sample size for research activities, educational and psychological measurement. 30. 607- 610.

Lawal, O.L., Basorun, J.O 2015. Access to Safe Water in Akure: A Paradox in Nigerian Urbanized Regions. International Journal of Emerging Knowledge, 3(3): 39 - 45.

Mancosu, N., Richard L. S., Gavriil, K. and Donatella, S. 2015. Review Water Scarcity and Future Challenges for Food Production. Water Journal.7:975-992.

Morrison, J., Morikawa, M., Murphy, M., Schulte, P. 2009 Water Scarcity and Climate Change: Growing Risks for Businesses and Investors. A Ceres Report. Pacific Institute United State.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2017. Statistical Report on Women and Men in Nigeria 2017. Social Statistics Report 201.

Oluwa, K. 2012. Infrastructure Development: Catalyst for economic growth’. The Businessday, online edition.

Raunio, S. 2016. Successful implementation of Public-Private Partnerships to local communities providing water supply services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Bachelor of Business Administration European Business Administration Thesis 16.9.2016.

Rilwanu, T. Y., Iguisi, E.O., Mallam, I. 2016. Assessment of Water Supply Situation in the Rural Areas of Kano State, Northern Nigeria”. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (ISSN: 2315-5094) Vol. 5(1): 033-041, January, 2016 Issue. Available online

Sandra, L., Postel, B.H., Thompson J. 2005. Watershed protection: Capturing the benefits of nature's water supply services”. A United Nations Sustainable Development Journal, Vol 29, Issue 2, 2005, Pp 98 – 108.

Szentes, G. 2009. Granite formation and granite cavities in Northern Nigeria: Cad.Lab. Laxe34 P13 – 26.

Showers, K. B. 2002. Water scarcity and urban Africa: An overview of Urban–Rural water linkages”. World Development, 30(4): 621-648.

Sunday, D. A. 2015. Fresh water Scarcity induced Conflicts between Farmers and Pastoralists in Northern Nigeria”. A Research and International Cooperation Initiative. 2(8): 67- 79.

Tyler, G., Joshua, Y., Rebecca, G., Arabi, M., Jiyoung L. 2017. Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions and Health Outcomes among Two Settlement Types in Rural Far North Cameroon. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 14(4): 441.

World Wild Life’ 2013. Water Scarcity threats. Retrieved 20 October 2013.

Wilhite, D.A 2005. Drought and Water Crises Science, Technology and Management Issues”. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW 300 Pp 33






Original Manuscript