EVALUATION OF TWO ANIMAL PROTEIN SOURCES IN SINGLE PHASE FEEDING OF BROILER CHICKENS
Keywords:Blood meal, broiler chicken, feeding, feed intake, fish meal, single phase, weight gain
A study was carried out to compare the use of blood meal and fish meal as protein sources in single phase feeding of broiler chickens. Three isonitrogenious and isocaloric diets containing between 20.5 to 21.1 % CP and 3440 to 3454 kcal/kg ME were formulated. The control diet contained none of the animal protein sources while the other two diets contained blood meal and fish meal at 6%, respectively. After six weeks of straight feeding, data were collected on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Carcass characteristics and cost benefit were also calculated. The results indicated that birds fed fish meal based diet consumed more feed (p< 0.05) than those on control diet, while intake of those on blood meal based diet was an interphase between the control and fish meal based diet groups. The birds fed fish meal based diet also recorded higher (p< 0.05) daily weight gain than those on control and blood meal based diets. Feed conversion ratio was better in the group fed fish meal based diet than those fed the control diet, but similar (p> 0.05) to the group fed the blood meal based diet. The dressing percentage of the birds was similar (p>0.05) in the control and blood meal based diet groups, but they were higher (p<0.05) than the fish meal based diet group. The neck, back, drumstick and head were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the control group than in the groups containing animal protein. Cost benefit analysis showed that feed cost and cost per kg weight gain were higher (p< 0.05) in fish meal based diet group than in control and blood meal based diet groups. Revenue per bird and gross margin were higher (p< 0.05) in the blood meal based diet group than in the control diet and fish meal based diet groups. In conclusion, fast growing broiler chickens for eatery houses can be better reared with a single diet of 21 % CP and 3440 kcal/kg ME using blood meal as a protein source.
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Banergee, G.C. 2013. Animal Husbandary. 8th Edition. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt Ltd. 1079pp.
Dobrzan’ski S., Jarmoz D., Usydus Z., Trziszka. T. 2003. Effect of modified dietary fish meal broiler performance and meat quality., Medical Veterinary Journal, Lublin., 59: 702 -705.
Donkoh, A., Attoh-Kotoku, V. 2009. Nutritive value of feed stuff for poultry in Ghana. Chemical composition, apparent metabolisable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility. Journal Livestock Research and Rural Development. 21(3): 143 – 156.
Gomez, A. K., Gomez, A. A. 1985. Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
Heuze, V., Tran, G., Kaushik, S. 2015. Fishmeal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http//www.feedipedia.org/node208.
Maigulema, M. A., Garnet, A.G. 2003. Effect of feeding elevated levels of tilapia by-product on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. International Journal of Poultry Science 2: 195-199.
Morgan, D.J., Cole, D.J.A., Leuris, D. 1975. Energy values in pig nutrition:The relationahip between digestible energy, metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrient values of a wide range of feedstuffs. J. Agric.Sci. (Camb.). 84: 7-17
Mourghan, P.J., Fuller, M.F., Kerr, R.T. 1999. Modeling amino acid metabolism and estimation of amino acid requirement. In. Amino acid in farm Animal Nutrition. J.D.F. D’Medlo, ed. CABI Publishing. Oxford. U.K.
National Research Council NRC 1994. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry. 9th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington.
National Root Crop Research Institute NRCRI. 2014. Agro-meteorogical unit. National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
Ojewola, G. S., Okoye, F. C., Ukoha, O.A. 2005. Comparative utilization of three protein sources by broiler chickens. International Journal of Animal Science. 4(7): 462- 467.
Okah, U., Udoh, A.M., N. Orji 2014. Performance and economic evaluation of single and two-phase diets in broiler production. Journal of Applied Agricultural Research 6(1): 155-162.
Olomu, J.M. 2011. Monogastric Animal Nutrition. Princple and Practices. Joachem Publishers. Benin city. Nigeria. pp80 – 98.
Oluyemi, J. A., Roberts, F.A. 2000 .Poultry Production in warm wet climates. (2nd Ed.) Macmillan Press, Ltd., London. P. 195-199.
Pope, T., Emmert, J.L. 2002. Importance of phase feeding in the growth performance of broilers subjected to high environmental temperature. Journal of Poultry Science 81: 504 – 511.
Poultry Feeding Standard 2005. Edition. The Kielanowski Institute of animal physiologyand nutrition, Polish institute of science. ISBN 83-917097-7-9. Jablanna/Warzawa. Poland. human food and animal feed: A Review. African Journal of Food Science 3(9): 223 – 232.
Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. (2nd edition). McGraw-Hill Inc., Tokyo, Japan 633pp