EFFECTS OF AESTIVATION DURATION ON TESTOSTERONE, HAEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT OF GIANT AFRICAN LAND SNAIL (Archachatina marginata) DURING DRY SEASON
Aestivation is a process of metabolic inactivity under which energy reserve are manipulated for survival. Reproductive apparatus and haemolymph biochemical agents also undergo phase manipulation as the duration continues. To determine the physiological influence on key hormone of reproduction and reproductive apparatus, seventy five A. marginata snails were used for this study. The snails were divided into five treatments with fifteen replicate each. Treatment include: Zero (0) week, Three (3) weeks, Six (6) weeks, nine (9) weeks and six (6) weeks post-aestivation. Parameters measured were: Testosterone concentration, haemolymph biochemical parameters (Total protein, albumin, globulin, Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine transaminase (ALT), dimensions (length) and weight of the organs and tissues of the reproductive tracts (Ovo-testis, penis, vaginal, oviduct, little hermaphrodite duct, common hermaphrodite duct, vas deferens and albumen gland) gonado-somatic index and percentage mortality. Result showed that level of testosterone at three and six weeks of aestivation significantly reduced compared to the control. Also, at nine weeks of aestivation, the reduction was significantly greater than what was recorded at both three and six weeks of aestivation. But the testosterone levels were reversed at nine weeks post aestivation. Total protein and globulin were significantly influenced with both reaching a peak value at 9 weeks of aestivation while ALT, AST and albumin were not significantly affected. So also, of all the reproductive tract parts measured, organ weight, ovo-testis weight, penis weight and length were significantly influenced (P<0.001; P<0.001; P<0.05; P<0.001). Similarly, vaginal weight, oviduct weight, little hermaphrodite duct weight and length were also significantly affected together with vas deferens length and albumen gland length while aestivation duration had no significant influence on reproductive tract weight, ovo-testis length, vaginal length, oviduct length, little hermaphrodite duct length, vas deferens weight and albumen gland weight. Similarly, gonado-somatic index was also not significantly affected by aestivation duration. It was also obvious from this study that the highest mortality was recorded at 6 weeks of aestivation, followed by 9 weeks of aestivation while 3weeks and 6 weeks post-aestivation had the least mortality with the control intact.
In conclusion, it is clear from this study that aestivation duration significantly influenced testosterone concentration, haemolymph biochemical parameters and some selected reproductive apparatus of A. marginata.
Abiona, J. A. 2005. Comparative study of the accessory reproductive organs of two species of giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata and Achatina achatina) M. Agric. Dissertation. Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Beetham, R., Howie, N., Soutar, R. 2005. Can opportunistic case-finding of paraproteins be clinically justified? Ann Clin Biochem. 42:245–253.
Bergendahl, M., Perheentupa, A., Huhtaniemi, I. 1989. Effect of short-term starvation on reproductive hormone gene expression, secretion and receptor levels in male rats. J Endocrinol 121 :409-4 17.
Buckland-Nicks, J., Chia, F.S. 1990. Egg capsule formation and hatching in marine snail Littorina sitkana. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B, 326: 159-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1990.0001
Campbell, G. A., Kurcz, M., Marshall, S., Meites, J. 1977. Effect of starvation in rats on serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyrotropin, growth hormone and prolactin: response to LH-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 100:580-587.
Carvalho, J. E., Navas, C. A., Pereira, I. C. 2010. Energy and water in aestivating amphibians. Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 49, 141-169.
Christian, O, C., Vincent, C. E., Chinweike, N. A., Emmanuel, I., Nnamonu, O. C., Okeke, E. I. O., Godwin, C. U., Loretta, C. O., Chidinma, A. L. 2014. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda:Pulmonata) in tropical agro-ecosystem. Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology 67:48-57.
Farkas, J. P., Farkas, P., Hyde, D. 2004. Liver and gastroenterology test. In: Lee, M. (Ed.), Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. American Society of Health System Pharmacists Inc., USA.
Giokas, S., Pafilis, P., Valakos, E., 2005. Ecological and physiological
studies of the land snail Albinaria caurelea (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae). J. Mollusc. Stud. 71, 15–23.
Grizard, G., Artonne, C., Grizard, J., Boucher, D. 1997. Effect of short-term starvation on leydig cell function in Adult Rats. Archives of Andrology 38 (3):207-214.
Guppy, M. 2004. The biochemistry of metabolic depression: a history of perceptions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 139B, 435-442.
Howland, B. E., Skinner, K. R .1973. Effect of starvation on gonadotropin secretion in intact and castrated male rats. Can J Physiol Pharm 51:753-762.
Klibanski, A., Beitins, I. Z., Badger, T., Little, R., McArthur, J. W. 1981. Reproduction function during fasting in men. J Clin Endocr Metab-53:258-263.
Mahmoud, M. B. 2006. Biological and histological impact of the insecticides regent and mimic on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Egypt. J. Zool. 46, 11–21.
Omoyakhi, J.M., Okhale, O.E. 2015b. Histological Changes of the Male and Hermaphroditic Reproductive Organs of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina marginata) in Aestivation Lengths. Nig. J. Agr. Food and Env. 11(1) 84-89
Prior, D.J. 1985. Water-regulatory behaviour in terrestrial gastropods.
Biol. Res. 60, 403–424.
Root, A. W., Russ, R. D. 1972. Short-term effects of castration and starvation upon pituitary and serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in male rats. Acta Endocrinol 70: 665- 675.
Schulte-Oehlmann U., Fioroni, P., Oehlmann, J. & Stroben, E. 1994. The genital system of Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae). A morphological and histological analysis. Zool Beitr N F, 36 (1): 59-81.
Simanainen, U., McNamara, K., Davey, R. A., Zajac, J. D., Handelsman, D. J. 2008. Severe subfertility in mice with androgen receptor inactivation in sex accessory organs but not in testis. Endocrinology 149:3330–3338.
Storey, K. B., Storey, J. M. 2012. Aestivation: Signaling and hypometabolism. Journal of Experimental Biology 215:1425-1433.
Withers, P. C., Cooper, C. E. 2010. Metabolic depression: a historical perspective. Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 49, 1-23.