• F. F. OYEBANJI Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
  • G.R. E.E. ANA Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Y. MIJINYAWA Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
  • Y. A. TIJANI Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria
Keywords: Agriculture, Outdoor, Air pollutants, Bio-aerosols, Farm settlements


This study assessed the levels of air pollutants emitted outdoor of farm settlements (FS), the seasonal and temporal variations, and the relationship among the parameters monitored. Seven FS within Ogun State were investigated, with 211 sampling points established across the FS. The concentrations of VOCs, SO2, NO2, CO, O3, NH3, CO2, TSP, PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored in replicates using active potable samplers while bacteria and fungi were isolated using settle plate technique. Descriptive (means and standard deviation) and inferential statistical tools (Pearson correlation) were used to analyse the data. The mean ranges of VOCs, CO and CO2 (ppm); 20.8±10.53 – 48.67±19.05, 17.95±6.65 – 21.5±3.93, 3562.15±1200.85  –  4266±1176.85, and for bacteria and fungi (cfu/m3); 548.98±1.18 – 2255.01±1.27 and 525.68±1.15 – 1282.38±1.27 respectively were above the threshold limits. There were significant seasonal, spatial and temporal differences among observed means of VOCs, CO2 O3, TSP, PM2.5, and fungi. The bacteria and fungi count increased as TSP, PM2.5 and PM10 increased. The study established that levels of air pollutants are dependent on the type of farming practice.



Afzal, M., Mehdi, F.S., Siddiqui, Z.S. 2004. Effect of relative humidity and temperature on airborne fungal allergens of Karachi city. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7:159-162

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) 2001. Indoor environmental quality committee the practitioner's approach to indoor air quality investigations. Proceedings of the indoor air quality international

Aneja, V.P., Schlesinger, W.H., Erisman, J.W. 2009. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: Research, policy and regulations. Environmental Science and Technology 43(12):4234-4240

Arslan, S., Aybek, A. 2012. Particulate Matter Exposure in Agriculture. IntechOpen 10:73–104

ASHRAE limits ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, 2010. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality standard 62.1. United States of America

Bhandari, G. 2014. An overview of agrochemicals and their effects on the environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2(2), 66-73.

Brodka, K., Sowiak, M., Kozajda, A., Cyprowski, M., Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I. 2012. Biological contamination in office buildings related to ventilation/air conditioning system. Medycyna Pracy 63(3):303–315

Cyrys, J., Pitz, M., Bischof, W., Wichmanna, H., Heinricha, J. 2004. Relationship between indoor and outdoor levels of fine particle mass, particle number concentrations and black smoke under different ventilation conditions. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14:275–283

Dungan, R.S., Leytem, A.B., Verwey, S.A., Bjorneberg, D.L. 2010. Assessment of bio-aerosols at a concentrated dairy operation. Aerobiologia 26:171-84

Dunn, R.R., Fierer, N., Henley, J.B., Leff, J.W., Menninger, H.L. 2013. Home life: factors structuring the bacterial diversity found within and between homes. PloS one 8(5): e64133. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064133

Dusenge, M.E., Duarte, A.G., Way, D.A. 2019. Plant carbon metabolism and climate change: elevated CO 2 and temperature impacts on photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration. New Phytologist, 221(1), 32-49.

Eisenberg, S.W.F., Nielen, M., Santema, W., Houwers, D., Heederik, D., Koets, A. P. 2010. Detection of spatial and temporal spread of subsp. in the environment of a cattle farm through bio-aerosols. Veterinary Microbiology 143(2-4): 284

Gilbert, N. 2012. One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture. Nature, 31, 10-12.

Grzyb, J., Lenart-Boroń, A. 2019. Bacterial bioaerosol concentration and size distribution in the selected animal premises in a zoological garden. Aerobiologia 35: 253–268
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2015. World agriculture: towards 2015/2030: an FAO perspective. FAO. Availabe:

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) 1991. Nigerian Standards on Environmental Parameters and Control, Nigeria A manual guide for Environmental usage Available from

Harizanova-Bartos, H., Stoyanova, Z. 2018. Impact of agriculture on air pollution. CBU International Conference on Innovations in Science and Education March 21-23, Prague, Czech Republic

Hinz, T. 2002. PM in and from agriculture– Introduction and overview: Institute of Technology and Biosystems Engineering, J Agric Eng Res 70 (1):111-118

Ingle, S.T., Pachpande, B.G., Wagh, N.D., Patel, V.S., Attarde, S.B. 2005. Exposure to vehicular pollution and respiratory impairment of traffic policemen in Jalgaon City, India. Industrial health 43(4), 656-662.

Jager, A.C. 2005. Exposure of poultry farmworkers to ammonia, particulate matter and microorganisms in the Otchefstroom District, South Africa. MSc Dissertation, North-West University, South Africa

Kalisa, E., Archer, S., Nagato, E., Bizuru, E., Lee, K., Tang, N., Pointing, S., Hayakawa, K., Lacap-Bugler, D. 2019. Chemical and biological components of urban Aerosols in Africa: current status and knowledge gaps. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6), 941.

Karambelas, A., Holloway, T., Kinney, P.L., Fiore, A.M., DeFries, R., Kiesewetter, G., Heyes, C. 2018. Urban versus rural health impacts attributable to PM2.5 and O3 in northern India. Environmental Research Letters, 13(6), 064010.

Karimi, M. 2017. 5 Tips to successfully manage poultry house ammonia levels. Available at: Accessed on 4th March, 2019.

Li, Y., Leung, G.M., Tang, J.W., Yang, X. 2007. Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment-a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor Air 17: 2-18

Morakinyo, O.M., Ana, G.R.E.E., Hammed, T.B., Adejumo, M. 2015. Indoor air quality and perceived health effects experienced by occupants of an office complex in a typical tertiary institution in Nigeria, Science Journal of Public Health 3(4): 552-558

Mostafa, E., Nannen, C., Henseler, J., Diekmann, B., Gates, R., Buescher, W. 2016. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses—empirical studies to improve emission modelling. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(12), 12253-12263.

Napoli, C., Marcotrigiano, V., Montagna M.T. 2012. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres BMC Public Health 12:594

Ogun State Government (OGSG) 2017. Available: http://wwwogunstategovng/ogun-state-profile/ Assessed 25th February, 2017

Ohimain E.I., Izah S.C. 2013. Gaseous emissions from a semi-mechanized oil palm processing mill in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Water, Air and Soil Pollution 4(1): 15 – 25

Ojekunle, Z.O., Jinadu, O.O.E., Afolabi, T.A., Taiwo, A.M. 2018. Environmental Pollution and Related Hazards at Agbara Industrial Area, Ogun State. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-8.

Oyebanji, F.F., Adeofun, C.O., Adedeji, O.H., Ekpo, U.F., Oguntoke, O., Ojekunle, O.Z. (2013) Assessment of respiratory health impact of fuel-wood utilization on exposed rural women in Odeda, Southwestern, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (H) 13:4(1), 23-30

Oyebanji, F.F., Oguntoke, O., Ojekunle, O.Z., Adeofun, C.O., Adedeji, O.H., Ekpo, U.F. 2016. Seasonal and Spatial Analysis of Air Pollutants Emissions from Fuel-Wood Utilization in Selected Rural Communities within Odeda LGA, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 16 (3) Version 1: 32 – 42

Power, A.L., Tennant, R.K., Jones, R.T., Tang, Y., Du, J., Worsley, A.T., Love, J. 2018. Monitoring impacts of urbanisation and industrialisation on air quality in the Anthropocene using urban pond sediments. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, 131.

Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Andersen, Z.J., Beelen, R., Samoli, E., Stafoggia, M., Weinmayr, G., Hoffmann, B., Fischer, P., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Brunekreef, B. and Xun, W.W. 2013. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The Lancet Oncology, 14(9), 813-822.

Rashid, G., Hekmat, R., Nejat, L.A., Payam, J., Farzad, J. 2013. Analysis and comparison exhaust gas emissions from agricultural tractors. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5(7), 688.

Rohila, A.K., Ansul, M.D., Kumar, A., Kumar, K. 2017. Impact of agricultural practices on the environment. Asian Journal of Microbiological Biotechnology and Environmental Science 19 (2): 145-148

Samadi, S., Wouters, I.M., Heederik, D.J.J. 2013. Review of bio-aerosol exposures and associated health effects in veterinary practice. Ann Agric Environ Med. 20(2):206–221

Schulz, J., Seedorf, J., Hartung, J. 2005. Estimation of a safe distance between a natural ventilated broiler house and a residential dwelling In: Krynski, A., Wrzesien, R. eds: Proc, Volume 2, XIIth Internat Congress on Animal Hygiene of the ISAH International Society for Animal Hygiene and Environment, Warsaw, Poland, 04-080905, 41-45

Seedorf, J. 2004. An emission inventory of livestock-related bio-aerosols for Lower Saxony, Germany. Atmospheric Environment 38: 6565-6581

Sowiak, M., Bródka, K., Buczyńska, A., Cyprowski, M., Kozajda, A., Sobala, W., Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I. 2012. An assessment of potential exposure to bio-aerosols among swine farmworkers with particular reference to airborne microorganisms in the respirable fraction under various breeding conditions. Aerobiologia, 28(2), 121-133.

Stryjakowska-Sekulska, M., Piotraszewska-Pająk, A., Szyszka, A., Nowicki, M., Filipiak, M. 2007. Microbiological quality of indoor air in university rooms. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 16(4): 623-632

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009. Air Quality Index: A guide to air quality and your health. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA-456/F-09-002

Wemedo, S.A., Ede, P.N., Chuku, A. 2012 Interaction between building design and indoor airborne microbial load in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences 5: 183-191

World Bank Group 2019. (Accessed 15th October, 2019).

World Health Organization (WHO) 2000. Guidelines for Air Quality.Geneva

World Health Organization (WHO) 2002. Guidelines for concentration and exposure-response measurements of fine and ultra fine particulate matter for use in epidemiological studies, Geneva, Switzerland

World Health Organization (WHO) 2005. Air quality guidelines - global update 2005 Accessed on April, 20th 2018

Winkel, A, van Riel, J.W., van Emous, R.A., Aarnink, A.J.A., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Ogink, N.W.M. 2016. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil. Poultry Science 95(12):2836–2848

Xu W, Zheng K, Meng L, Liu X, Hartung E, Roelcke M, Zhang, F. 2016. Concentrations and emissions of particulate matter from intensive pig production at a large farm in north China. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 16:79–90

Zucker, B.A., Trojan, S., Müller, W. 2000. Air-borne gram-negative bacteria flora in animal houses. Journal of veterinary medicine B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health 47(1):37-46.
Original Manuscript