• L.W. AGBOOLA Department of Agricultural Development & Management, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, P.M.B. 1343. Ilorin, Kwara State.
  • O.L. BALOGUN Department of Agriculture & Industrial Technology, School of Science & Technology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State.



Arable crop farmers, Determinants, Household heads, Soil conservation techniques and Total factor productivity


The study examined soil conservation techniques and its effect on productivity of arable crop farmers in Kogi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 184 farmers using three stage sampling technique.  Data analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics, Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and regression analysis. Result shows that the soil conservation technique prevalent in the area was application of inorganic fertilizer. About 36.4% of the sampled household heads have productivity value above average across all the soil conservation categories (productive). Result also reveals that age (-1.801), household size (-0.310) and access to credit (-0.056) impacted arable crop farmers negatively while alley cropping (0.357), crop rotation (0.380), application of inorganic fertilizer (0.503), mulching (0.560) and organic manure (0.373) positively impacted arable farmers’ productivity.  The study concludes that soil conservation techniques are productivity enhancer. Promoting sustainable conservation techniques that are farm or farmer specific is recommended.




Acheampong, I.K., Anoff, J. 200. Returns to scale in agricultural production: evidence from cocoa and maize production in Ghana. The Indian Journal of Economics, 87(345):193-209.

Adepoju, A. A., Salman, K. K. 2013. Increasing Agricultural Productivity through Rural Infrastructure: Evidence from Oyo and Osun States, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research. 9 (1&2): 1-10.

Ahmed, N.S.E., Elrashhed M.M.M. 2016. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Sorghum Productivity in the Rain-fed Sector of Gadarif State, Sudan. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 10(2): 1-6.

Akintayo, O.I., Rahji, M.A.Y. 2011. Determinants of Total Factor Productivity in Rainfed lowland Rice production system in Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Science (JOAFSS). 9(1):33- 38.

Antonio, S. 2016. Adoption and impact of soil conservation practices on farm income: Evidence from northern Haiti. Selected Poster prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association’s 2016 Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas February 6, 1-14.

Ayana, G. Y. 2017. Farmers’ willingness to pay for soil conservation practices in Gobu Seyo District, Eastern Wollega Zone, Oromia national regional State of Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental. 03(03):2976—2990.

Ayodele, O.O., Akinola, A.A., Owombo P.T. 2012. Economic Efficiency of Land Improvement Techniques among Cassava Farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. Online Journal of Social Sciences Research 1(5):154-159.

Babatunde, R.O., Salami M.F., Mohammed B.A. 2016. Determinants of Yield Gap in Rain fed and Irrigated Rice Production: Evidence from Household Survey in Kwara State. Invited paper presented at the 5th International Conference of the African Association of Agricultural Economists, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Balogun, O.L 2011. Influence of social capital and micro-credit on rural household poverty in southwest Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Dillon, B., Barrett, C.B. 2014. Agricultural factor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: An updated view with formal tests for market failure. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper no. WPS7117.

Ezeaku, P. I. 2012. Soil conservation and management options for adaptation to climate change in the 21st century In: A. I., Enete, . and M. I. Uguru (eds) Critical Issues in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Nigeria,. Enugu, Chengo limited, pp.84-113

Food and Agriculture Organization FAO 2012. Towards the Future We Want: End the Hunger and Make the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems. Report on RioC20.Rome: FAO.

Food and Agriculture Organization FAO 2014. “State of food and agriculture in the African region and CAADP implementation with specific focus on smallholder farmers and family farming.” Paper delivered at the FAO regional conference for Africa, Tunis, March 24–28, 2014.

Food and Agriculture Organization FAO 2015. The State of food insecurity in the world. Retrieved from Accessed: September 21, 2015.

Fakayode, S.B., Babatunde, R.O., Ajao, R. 2008. Productivity Analysis of Cassava-Based Production Systems in the Guinea Savannah: Case Study of Kwara State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 3(1): 33-39.

Fantappiè, M. Lorenzetti, R. De Meo, I. and Costantini, E.A C. 2020. How to improve the adoption of soil conservation practices? Suggestions from farmers' perception in western Sicily Journal of Rural Studies 73 (2020) 186–202 Received 19 February 2020

Fawole, W.O., Rahji, M. A. Y. 2016. Determinants of Productivity among Farmers in Ondo State of Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 9(4): 1-7.

Foster, L., Haltiwanger, J., Syverson, C. 2008. “Reallocation, Firm Turnover, and Efficiency: Selection on Productivity or Profitability?” American Economic Review. 98(1): 394–425.

Gujarati, D.N. 2004. Basic Econometrics. Fourth edition. The McGraw Hill Companies pp 341- 370.

Hsieh Chang-Tai, and Klenow, P.J. 2009. “Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China and India.” Quarterly Journal of Economics. 124(4): 1403–48.

Hussain, I., Perera, I.R. 2004. “Improving Agricultural Productivity through integrated service Provision with the public. Private-Sector Partnership” Working Paper 66. Columbia. Sri- Lanka: International Water Management Institute.

Jean-Paul C. 2009. Productivity Analysis in Agriculture: Concepts and Challenges. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 009.pdf

Junge, B., Deji, O., Abaidoo, R., Chikoye, D., Stahr, K. 2009. Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 15(3): 257-274.

Key, N., Mcbride, W., 2003. Production contracts and productivity in the US hog sector. American journal of Agricultural Economics. 85(1): 121-133.

Kassie, M., Jaleta, M., Shiferaw, B., Mmbando F., Mekuria, M., 2013. Adoption of interrelated sustainable agricultural practices in smallholder systems: evidence from rural Tanzania. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 80: 525–540.

Lasway, J. A., Temba, G. R., Ruhinduka,, R. D., 2020. Determinants of Soil Conservation Technologies Among Small-Scale Farmers in Tanzania; Evidence from National Panel Survey. African Journal of Economic Review. 8(1): 89-105.

Musafiri, I., Mirzabaev, A. 2014. Long-term determinants of Agricultural output in smallholder farmers in Rwanda. Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2014 AAEA Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, July 27-29, 2014. 8pp.

Mwuese, A. M., Okorji, E. C. 2014 Factors that enhance or reduce productivity among Cassava Women farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) 7(5): 07-12

Mwuese, A. M., Okorji, E. C. 2015. Determinants of productivity among women in development activity: A case study of the Cassava women farmers of Benue Agricultural Development Project, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 4(2):159-165.

National Population Commission NPC 2006. National Population Commission (Nigeria): Report on the Survey of Demographic and Health survey.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD 2009. “Soil Productivity and Pro-Poor Growth”, in Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth: The Economics and Politics, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI:

Ouyang, W, Wu, Y., Hao, Z., Zhang, Q., Bu, Q., Gao, X. 2018. Combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion in a mollisol area under long-term agricultural development. Science of the Total Environment 613-614: 98-809

Powlson, D.S., Gregory, P.J., Whalley, W.R., Quinton, J.N., Hopkins, D.W., Whitmore, A.P., Hirsch, P.R., Goulding, K.W.T. 2011. Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services. Food Policy, 36:72–87.

Sambo, S.S. 2015. Factors influencing adoption of recommended environmental management practices by crop farmers in selected local government areas of Jigawa State, Nigeria. Unpublished Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

Sastre, B., Barbero-Sierra, C., Bienes, R., Marques, M.J., García-Díaz, A., 2016. Soil loss in an olive grove in Central Spain under cover crops and tillage treatments, and farmer perceptions. J. Soils Sediments 1–16.

Schiller, B.R. 1980. The Economy today. Random house, business division, New York. P. 428.

Shah, F., Wu, W. 2019. Review Soil and Crop Management Strategies to Ensure Higher Crop Productivity within Sustainable Environments Sustainability 2019, 11, 1485; doi:10.3390/su11051485

Shaikh, S.A., Hongbing, O., Khan, K., Ahmed, K.M. 2016. Determinants of Rice Productivity: An Analysis of Jaffarabad District –Balochistan (Pakistan). European Scientific Journal. 12(13): 41-50.

Tunde A.B., Kuton M.P., Oladipo A.A., Olasunkanmi, H. 2015. Economic Analyze of Costs and Return of Fish Farming in Saki-East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. J Aquac Res Development 6(2): 1-5.

The World Bank, World Development Report: Agriculture for Development. 2008. The World Fact book. 2012. Retrieved from

Van Herzele, A., Gobin, A., Van Gossum, P., Acosta, L., Waas, T., Dendoncker, N., Henry de Frahan, B. 2013. Effort for money? Farmers' rationale for participation in agrienvironment measures with different implementation complexity. J. Environ. Manag. 131, 110–120.

Wiebe, K.D., Schimmelpfennig, D.E., Soule, M.J. 2001. Agricultural Policy, Investment and Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. FAO corporate Document Repository, Economic and Social Development Department, 2001.

Zhu, M. 2014. Soil erosion assessment using USLE in the GIS environment: A case study in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, China. Environmental Earth Sciences 73(12):7899-7908.






Original Manuscript