EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE INDICES OF STARTER PULLETS IN A HOT - HUMID ENVIRONMENT
Keywords:Season, heat stress, supplementary, starter, harmattan, Ascorbic acid
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the nutritional effects of supplementary ascorbic acid (AA) at levels of 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg in the diets of starter pullets reared at different seasons (harmattan season and rainy season) in a hot humid environment. Two hundred and forty day-old Harco pullet chicks were used in each trial, they were randomly assigned to each of the four dietary treatments in three replications of twenty chicks per replicate. Each trial lasted 8 weeks during which data were collected and a 2 X 4 factorial arrangement was employed in the analysis of data collected. Results showed significant (p<0.05) effect of treatments on feed conversion ratio of birds fed dietary treatments. Season of presentation of ascorbic acid significantly affected (p<0.05) feed intake with higher value obtained in the rainy season compared to the dry season (41.89g vs. 39.59).
Ahmad. M.M., Moreng, R.E., Muller, H. D. 1967. Breed responses in body temperature to elevated environmental temperature and ascorbic acid. Poultry Science, 46: 6.
Alisheikhov, A.M . 1980. The effect of different amounts of ascorbic acid on growth and accumulation of vitamin c in the tissue of chickens. Journal Nutrition, 15: 471-473.
Anon. 1979. How Vitamin C really works or does it? Nutrition today; Sept./Oct., 1979, P. 6 – 18.
Attia M. Ei-S. 1976. Effect of different levels of vitamin-C on body temperature of White Russian birds during heat stress. Egyptian Veterinary Medical Journal, 24:111.
Duncan, D.B. 1955. Multiple ranges and multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
Edens, F.W., Siegel, H.S. 1975. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol, 25: 64 – 73.
Fah, S.K. 1978. The effect of ascorbic acid and energy restriction on the growth and feed conversion of chicks. Singapore J. Prin. Industries, 6(1): 19-22.
Garrick, C.W., Huger, S.M. 1925. Presence of antiscorbutic substance in the livers of chicken fed on scorbutic diet. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 63: 115 – 122.
Hornig, D., Frigg, M. 1979. Effect of age on biosynthesis of ascorbate in chicks. Arch Gefluegelk, 43: 108-112.
Kafri, I., Cherry J.A. 1984. Supplemental ascorbic acid and heat stress in broiler Chicks. Poultry Science. 63: supplement 1:125 (abstract).
Kutlu, H.R., Forbes, J.M. 1994. Changes in growth and blood parameters in heat-stressed broiler chicks in response to dietary ascorbic acid. Livestock Production Science, 36: 335-350.
March, B., Biely, J. 1953. The effect of ascorbic acid on the growth rate of chicks.
Poultry Science, 32: 768.
Marron, I., Bedford, M.R., Mccracken, K.J. 2001. The effects of adding xylanase, vitamin C and copper sulphate to wheat-based diets on broiler performance. British Poultry Science, 42: 493-500.
Njoku, P.C., Nwazota, A.O.U. 1989. Effect of dietary induction of ascorbic acid and palm oil on the performance of laying hens in hot tropical environment. Brit. Poultry Science, 30: 833 – 843.
Njoku P.C., Whitehead, C.C., Mitchell, M. A. 1990. Heat stress and Vitamin C effect on the production characteristics of chicken. Symposium on Ascorbic acid in Domestic Animals. Kartause Ittingen, October 9th-12th
Nockels, C.F. 1984. The Royal Agric. Soci., Copenhagen, 175-184.
Nockels, C.F., Lopez, G.A., Phillips, R. W. 1973. Influence of vitamins A and C on corticosterone and carbohydrate metabolism in chickens. Poultry Science, 52: 1261-1269.
Perek, M. 1984. Proc. of the Royal Danish Agric. Soci. Copenhagen, 185-193.
Raja, A.Q., Qureshi, A. 2000. Effectiveness of supplementation of vitamin C in broiler feeds in hot season. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 20:100.
SAS Institute 2001. SAS/STAT guide for personal computer, version 8 edition (Cary, North Carolina SAS Institute).
Schemling, S.K., Nockels, C.F. 1978. Effects of age, sex and ascorbic acid ingestion on chicken plasma corticosterone levels. Poultry Sci., 57: 527-533.
Thornton, P.A. 1962. The effect of environmental temperature on body temperature and oxygen uptake by the chicken. Poultry Science, 41: 1053.
Zakaria, A.H., Latif A.A., Al-Anezi, M.A. 1998. Effects of ascorbic acid on embryonic development, hatch time and growth of extended placement of broiler chicken Archir. Fur Geflugelkunde, 62: 11-15.