• A. O. SAKA
  • S. Y. ERINOSHO Department of Science and Technology Education
  • A. S. IFAMUYIWA Department of Science and Technology Education


Achievement, learning style, pair programming, think-pair-share, programming achievement


This work examined the effects of the think-pair-share programming strategy on students’ achievement in programming. It also determined the moderating effect of learning styles on students’ achievement in programming. The study adopted a pretest-posttest-control group quasi-experimental research design. One hundred and twenty-two (122) students offering computer studies in senior secondary 2 from the two purposively selected public senior secondary schools in Ijebu Education Division of Ogun State constituted the sample. Computer Programming Achievement Test (CPAT, r = 0.760) and Learning Style Inventory (LSI, r= 0.83) were used for data collection.  Data obtained were analysed through inferential statistics of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using IBM SPSS Statistics 23. The finding indicated that the think-pair-share programming strategy significantly improved students’ achievement in the programming aspect of computer studies.  It was also found that learning style is not a strong factor in the learning of programming. The findings suggest that teachers should adopt the think-pair-share programming strategy in the teaching and learning of computer programming in senior secondary schools. It is therefore recommended that teacher education programme should include the strategy as one of the methods in the computer science methods courses to enable would-be teachers to master its nitty-gritty, since it worked in the senior secondary school. Also, the government and school authority should organize series of training through workshops and conferences to enable the teachers to acquire the skills to use the strategy.



Author Biographies

S. Y. ERINOSHO, Department of Science and Technology Education

Faculty of Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State.


A. S. IFAMUYIWA, Department of Science and Technology Education

Faculty of Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State.



Abesadze, S., Nozadze, D. 2020. Make 21st century education: The importance of teaching programming in schools. International Journal of Learning and Teaching 6(3): 6.

Apriyanti, D., Ayu, M. 2020. Think-pair-share: engaging students in speaking activities in classroom. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning 1(1): 13–19. doi: 10.33365/jeltl.v1i1.246

Bamiro, A. O. 2015. Effects of guided discovery and think-pair-share strategies on secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry. SAGE Open 5(1): 2158244014564754. doi: 10.1177/2158244014564754

Boudia, C., Bengueddach, A., Haffaf, H. (2019). Collaborative Strategy for Teaching and Learning Object-Oriented Programming course: A Case Study at Mostafa Stambouli Mascara University, Algeria. Informatica 43(1). doi: 10.31449/inf.v43i1.2335.

Bowman, N. A., Jarratt, L., Culver, K. C., Segre, A. M. 2020. Pair programming in perspective: Effects on persistence, achievement, and equity in Computer Science. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 13(4): 731–758. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2020.1799464.

Bowman, N. A., Jarratt, L., Culver, K., Segre, A. M. 2021. The impact of pair programming on college students' interest, perceptions, and achievement in Computer Science. ACM Transactions on Computing Education 21(3): 19:1-19:19. doi: 10.1145/3440759

Cakiroglu, U. 2014. Analyzing the effects of learning styles and study habits of distanced learners on learning performances: A case study of an introductory programming course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 15 (4): 161-185.

Campbell, V., Johnstone, M. 2010. The significance of learning style with respect to achievement in first year programming students. 165–170. doi: 10.1109/ASWEC.2010.33

Celepkolu, M., Boyer, K. E. 2018. Thematic Analysis of Students’ Reflections on Pair Programming. Paper presented at the 49th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. February 21-24, 2018. Baltimore MD, USA. ACM, NY, USA 6(pp.771-776). Retrieved from www.cise.utl.edu.https://doi.org/10.1145/3159.450.3159516.

Cheah, C. S. 2020. Factors contributing to the difficulties in teaching and learning of computer programming: A literature review. Contemporary Educational Technology 12(2): ep272. doi: 10.30935/cedtech/8247.

Ciftci, S., Bildiren, A. 2020. The effect of coding courses on the cognitive abilities and problem-solving skills of preschool children. Computer Science Education 30(1): 3–21. doi: 10.1080/08993408.2019.1696169.

Fagerlund, J., Häkkinen, P., Vesisenaho, M., Viiri, J. 2021. Computational thinking in programming with Scratch in primary schools: A systematic review. Computer Applications in Engineering Education 29(1): 12–28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.22255.

Figueiredo, J., García-Peñalvo, F. J. 2018. Building skills in introductory programming. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality 46–50. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. doi: 10.1145/3284179.3284190.

Flora, F., Raja, P., Mahpul, M. 2020. Discovery learning strategy: integrating think-pair-share and teacher’s corrective feedback to enhance students’ writing language accuracy. International Journal of Education and Practice 8(4): 733–745.

Gabriel, I. A., Osuafor, A. M., Cornelius, N. A., Obinna, P. P., Francis, E. 2018. Improving students’ achievement in chemistry through cooperative learning and individualized instruction. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 1–11. doi: 10.9734/JESBS/2018/42873.

Grover, S., Basu, S. 2017. Measuring student learning in introductory block-based programming: examining misconceptions of loops, variables, and boolean logic. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education 267–272. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. doi: 10.1145/3017680.3017723.

Honey, P., Mumford, A. 2006. Kolb’s Learning Styles. Retrieved from http://www.ycarhe.eu/uploads/Document/learning-styles-kolb-questionnaire.pdf

Kafilongo, K. W. M. 2016. The use of pair-programming to enhance the academic performance of tertiary level software development students. Retrieved February 28, 2021, from Undefined website: /paper/The-use-of-pair-programming-to-enhance-the-academic-Kafilongo/6140f3dbffd67308367a80b6e2e0b7d8005c5cb3

Kanika, S. C., Chakraborty, P. 2020. Tools and techniques for teaching computer programming: A review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 49(2): 170–198. doi: 10.1177/0047239520926971.

Kolb, D. A. 1984. Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kolb, A. Y., Kolb, D. A. 2005. Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education 4(2): 193-212.

Lyman, F. 1981. The Responsive Classroom Discussion. In A. S. Anderson (Ed.),

Mainstreaming Digest. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Press, pp. 109-113. Retrieved 29 January, 2020 from https://www.scirp.org/(S(vtj3fa45qm1ean45vvffcz55))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1955288

Maia, M. C. O., Serey, D., Figueiredo, J. 2017. Learning styles in programming education: A systematic mapping study. 2017 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) 1–7. doi: 10.1109/FIE.2017.8190465

Massoud, L., Hallman, S., Plaisent, M., Bernard, P. 2018. Applying and improving multidisciplinary teaching techniques to the programming classroom environment. DACEE-18,BEHIS-18 May 11-12, 2018 Zagreb (Croatia). Presented at the May 11-12, 2018 Zagreb (Croatia). doi: 10.17758/HEAIG3.H0518408.

Mualizan, Z. A., Hakim, M. N. 2018. The implementation of cooperative learning think pair share strategy in teaching reading comprehension at junior high school. IJLECR - International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review 4(2): 155–161. doi: 10.21009/IJLECR.052.19.

Misra, S. 2021. Pair programming: An empirical investigation in an agile software development environment. In A. Przybyłek, J. Miler, A. Poth, & A. Riel (Eds.), Lean and Agile Software Development (pp. 195–199). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-67084-9_13.

Mu’in, F., Amelia, R., Fadilla, R., Elyani, E. P. 2020. Teaching reading on English for specific purposes with think-pair-share technique. Journal of English Education and Teaching 4(4): 583–596. doi: 10.33369/jeet.4.4.583-596.

Noh, J., Lee, J. 2020. Effects of robotics programming on the computational thinking and creativity of elementary school students. Educational Technology Research and Development 68(1): 463–484. doi: 10.1007/s11423-019-09708-w

Papadakis, S. 2018. Is Pair Programming more effective than Solo Programming for Secondary Education, Novice Programmers? A case study. International Journal of Web-based Learning and Teaching Technologies 13 (1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJWLTT.2018010101/

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., Bjork, R. 2009. Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3): 105–109. (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA). doi: doi:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x

Retnowati, E., Ayres, P., Sweller, J. 2018. Collaborative learning effects when students have complete or incomplete knowledge. Applied Cognitive Psychology 32(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3444.

Saharudin, A. M., Yusoff, M., Haron, H., Latif, R. A. 2018. An analysis of factors influencing nstudents performance in programming assessment. Advanced Science Letters 24(11): 8182–8185. doi: 10.1166/asl.2018.12519.

Scotts, S., Palincsar, A. 2013. Sociocultural theory. Retrieved 29 August, 2019 from http://dr-hatfield.com/theorists/resources/sociocultural_theory.pdf

Seralidou, E., Douligeris, C. 2021. Learning programming by creating games through the use of structured activities in secondary education in Greece. Education and Information Technologies 26(1): 859–898. doi: 10.1007/s10639-020-10255-8

Seyal, A., Mey, Y., Matusin, M., Norzainah, H., Abdul-Rahman, A. 2015. Understanding students learning style and their performance in computer programming course: Evidence from bruneian technical institution of higher learning. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering 7(3): 241–247. doi: 10.7763/IJCTE.2015.V7.964

Sherriff, M. 2016. Pair Programming in the Classroom. Retrieved 6 May, 2018 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/.../e196739701ddaaab93755609cc7218ad4095.pdf

Siegle, D. 2017. Technology: Encouraging creativity and problem solving through coding. Gifted Child Today 40(2): 117–123. doi: 10.1177/1076217517690861

Sklirou, T. S., Andreopoulou, A., Georgaki, A., Tselikas, N. D. 2020. Introducing secondary education students to programming through sound alerts. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 5(12): 130–139. doi: 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.12.2298.

Suhrowardi, S. 2020. Improving writing skills: An implementation of “think pair share” for Islamic junior schools students. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching 8(3): 287–296. doi: 10.33394/jollt.v8i3.2751

Umar, I. N., Hui, T. H. 2012. Learning style, metaphor and pair programming: Do they influence performance? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46: 5603–5609. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.482.

West Africa Examinations Council Chief Examiners’ Report. 2014. General comment, weakness/remedies and candidate’s strength. Retrieved 2 December 2018 from https://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Computer/Comp223mq1.htm

West Africa Examinations Council Chief Examiners’ Report. 2015. General comment, weakness/remedies and candidate’s strength. Retrieved 2 December 2018 from https://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Computer/Comp224mq1.htm

West Africa Examinations Council Chief Examiners’ Report. 2016. General comment, weakness/remedies and candidate’s strength. Retrieved 2 December 2018 from https://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Computer/Comp225mq1.htm

West Africa Examinations Council Chief Examiners’ Report. 2017. General comment, weakness/remedies and strength. Retrieved 2 December 2018 from https://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Computer/Comp226mq1.htm

West Africa Examinations Council Chief Examiners’ Report. 2018. General comment, weakness/remedies and candidate’s strength. Retrieved 2 December 2018 from https://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Computer/Comp227mq1.htm

Xu, B., Yan, S., Gao, K., Zhang, Y., Yu, G. 2020. Influence of periodic role switching intervals on pair programming effectiveness. In G. Wang, X. Lin, J. Hendler, W. Song, Z. Xu, & G. Liu (Eds.), Web Information Systems and Applications (pp. 3–14). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-60029-7_1.

Yalagi, P. S., Dixit, R. K., Nirgude, M. A. (2020). Enhanced programming learning model (EPLM) through continuous collaborative coding (CCC) practice. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 33(Special Issue), 561–566. doi: 10.16920/jeet/2020/v33i0/150117

Yeboah, T., Sarpong, A. 2012. A study to investigate learning a style that has higher grade achievement in computer programming. Journal of Engineering, Computers & Applied Sciences 1(3): 33–38.

Yunikawati, N. A., Istiqomah, N., Hardinto, P., Susilo, Y. H., Prayitno, P. H., & Satrio, Y. D. 2021. Is Effective Think Pair Share (TPS) Used for Slow Learner Students (SLS)? Case Studies in Economic Development. 224–227. Atlantis Press. doi: 10.2991/assehr.k.210304.047