ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN SOME NIGERIAN MADE CEREALS AND TEA PRODUCTS
This study investigated the presence of the radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in some cereals and tea products commonly available in Nigerian markets. Fifteen cereal samples and ten tea samples were purchased from different markets in Lagos, Nigeria. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses of the samples were done using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector to obtain the activity concentrations of the radionuclides with 137Cs being below the detection limit in all the samples analyzed. The mean activity concentrations (in Bqkg-1) of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the cereal samples were (0.839 ± 0.713), (1.153 ± 1.084) and (22.514 ± 8.897) respectively; while the values for the tea samples were (1.145 ± 0.765), (0.94 ± 0.601) and (19.212 ± 9.533) respectively. The associated hazard indices for the cereals ranged from 0.0065 to 0.0368 while that for the tea products varied from 0.0044 to 0.0292. These values are well below the world recommended limit of 1.0. The calculated annual effective doses due to the ingestion of the investigated samples ranged from 0.068 mSvy-1 (for age groups from 1 y) to 0.189 mSvy-1 (for age group 17 y). For the tea samples, the highest value was found in the age group 12 – 17 y, while the lowest was found in the age group 1 – 2 y. These values are below the allowable level of 1 mSv per annum for members of the general public as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This indicates that the consumption of these cereals and teas do not pose as health hazards to both children and adults in the populace.
Abojassim, A.A., Al-Gazaly, H.H. and Kadhim, S.H. 2014. Estimated radiation hazard indices and ingestion effective dose in wheat flour samples of Iraq markets. International Journal of Food Contamination, 1:6.
Alharbi, A. and El-Taher, A. 2014. A Study of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from soil to plant. Life Science Journal, 10(2): 532 - 539.
Ademola, J.A. 2008. Determination of natural radionuclides content in some building materials in Nigeria by gamma ray spectrometry. Health Physics, 94(1): 43-48.
Alaamer, A.S. 2008. Assessment of Human Exposures to Natural Sources of Radiation in Soil Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Turkish Journal of Eng. Env. Science, 32: 229-234.
Al-Hamarneh, I.F. and Awadallah, M.I. 2009. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment in the highlands of northern Jordan. Radiation Measurements, 44: 102-110.
Alrefae, T., Nageswaran, T.N. and Al-Shemali, T. 2012. Radioactivity of Long Lived Gamma Emitters in Breakfast Cereal Consumed In Kuwait and Estimates of Annual Effective Doses. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research, 10(3-4): 117-122.
Alzubaidi, G., Hamid, F.B.S. and Rahman, I.A. 2016. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazards in Agricultural and Virgin soils in the State of Kedah, North of Malaysia. The Scientific World Journal, pp.9.
Arogunjo, A.M., Efuga, E.E. and Afolabi, M.A. 2004. Levels of Natural Radionuclides in some Nigerian Cereals and Tubers. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 82:1-6.
Avwiri, G.O. and Alao, A.A. 2013. Natural Radioactivity and Associated Radiation Hazards in some Commonly Consumed Tubers and Cereals in Oil Mining Lease (OML) 58 and 61, Oil and Gas Producing Areas, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319‐7064.
Avwiri, G.O., Osaralube, G.O. and Alao, A.A. 2011. Assessment of Norm-Containing Food Crops/Stuffs in OML 58 & OML 61 within the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research, 1(1):013 - 020.
Ebaid, Y.Y. 2010. Use of gamma-ray Spectrometry for uranium isotopic analysis of Environmental Samples. Rom Journal of Physics, 55(1-2): 69-74.
El-Gamal, H., Hussein, M.T. and Saleh, E.E. 2019. Evaluation of natural radioactivity levels in soil and various foodstuffs from Delta Abyan, Yemen. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 12: 226-233.
Fortunati, P., Brambilla, M., Speroni, F. and Carini, F. 2004. Folia uptake of 137Cs and 86Sr in strawberry as function of leaf age. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 71:187-199.
Changizi, V., Shafiei and Zareh, M.R. 2013. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K activities of Wheat and Corn Production in Ilam Province - Iran and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(8): 903-914.
Hacker, C., Barton and Barton, C. 1994. Hacker Papers (MSS HackerB), Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections and Archives Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon.
Haque, M. and Ferdous, M.J. 2017. Transfer of natural radionuclides from soil to plants in Savar Dhaka. Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 7(2): 133-145.
Harb, S. 2007. Measurement of the radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th, 232Th, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in tea using gamma-spectrometry. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 274(1):63–66.
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1989. Measurement of radionuclides in food and environment. A guide book, Technical Report Series No 295. IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
ICRP. 1990. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21 (1-3).
ICRP. International Commission on Radiological Protection. 2012. Compendium of Dose Coefficients based on ICRP Publication 60. ICRP Publication 119. Ann. ICRP 41(Suppl.).
Kabir, K.A., Islam, S.M.A. and Rahman, M.M. 2009. Distribution of radionuclides on surface soil and bottom sediment in the district of Jessore, Bangladesh and evaluation of radiation hazard. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, 33(1): 117-130.
Lenka, P., Sahoo, S.K., Mohapatra, S., Patra, A.C., Dubey, J.S., Vidyasagar, D., Tripathi, R.M. and Puranik, V.D. 2013. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 153(3): 328-333.
Linares, V., Bellés, M., Albina, M.L., Sirvent, J.J., Sánchez, D.J. and Domingo, J.L. 2006. Assessment of the pro-oxidant activity of uranium in kidney and testis of rats. Toxicology Letters, 167(2): 152-161.
Meli, M.A., Cantaluppi, C., Desideri, D., Beneditti, C. Feduzi, L. and Ceccotto, F. 2013. Radioactivity Measurements and Dosimetric Evaluation in meat of wild and bred animals in Central Italy. Food Control, 30: 272 -279.
MIwilo, N.A., Mohammed, N.K. and Spyrou, N.M. 2007. Radioactivity levels in staple foodstuffs and dose estimates for most of the Tanzanian population. Journal of Radiological Protection, 27: 471-480.
Shaban, H. and Rolf, M. 2009. Uptake of U- and Th-series radionuclides by cereal crops in Upper Egypt. Nuclear Science and Techniques, 20(2): 99–105.
Tawalbeh, A.A., Samat, S.B., Yasir, M.S. and Omar, M. 2012. Radiological Impact of drinks intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on adults of central zone of Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 16(2): 187–193.
Turner, J.E. 1995. Atoms, Radiation and Radiation Protection. 2nd Edition New York: John Wiley and Sons.
UNSCEAR. 2000. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, Vol. 1, New York, United Nations. Report of the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes
Velasco, H., Ayub, J.J., Belli, M. and Sansone, U. 2004. Temporal trend of 137Cs and 40K activity flux from soil to plant in grassland ecosystem Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 71:225 -241.