STABILITY OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED BY PSEUDOMONAS TAENENSIS
Biosurfactants are one of the microbial bioproducts that are naturally synthesized and are applicable for many industrial purposes. In this study, antibacterial, stability and antibiotic susceptibility of biosurfactant was evaluated. Biosurfactants produced from different substrates (groundnut cake, cassava flour waste, pome, cooking oil, engine oil, cassava waste water, molasses, cassava peel, potato) by Pseudomonas taenensis were evaluated for antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method. Antibiotics susceptibility of Pseudomonas taenensis was carried out using different antibiotics (augmentin, ofloxacin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, pefloxacin, amoxylin, ceftriazone, nitrofuranton and gentamycin). The stability of the biosurfactant was evaluated by adjusting the biosurfactant to: pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12) using 1M NaOH and 1M HCl, temperature (4, 30, 37, 55, 75 and 100 °C) and NaCl (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 %). Results showed that only biosurfactant produced using cassava waste water as substrate was sensitive to Escherichia coli while biosurfactant produced using cassava flour waste, pome and molasses were sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus. Biosurfactant-producing isolate (Pseudomonas taenensis) was sensitive to four antibiotics (augmentin, ofloxacin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin) and resistant to six antibiotics (cotrimoxazole, pefloxacin, amoxylin, ceftriazone, nitrofuranton and gentamycin). Biosurfactant was stable over all the wide ranges of pH, temperature and sodium chloride concentrations investigated. This study therefore revealed that biosurfactant have good stability, thus, could survive environmental stress; Not all biosurfactant and biosurfactant producers have antimicrobial and antibiotic property.
Al-Sulaimani, H., Al-Wahaibi, Y., Al-Bahry, S., Elshafie, A., Al-Bermani, A., Joshi, S. and Zargari, S. 2011. Optimization and partial characterization of biosurfactants produced by bacillus species and their potential for ex-situ enhanced oil recovery. SPE J, 16(3): 672–682.
Araujo, H.W., Andrade, R.F., Montero-Rodriguez, D., Rubio-Ribeaux, D., Alves da Silva, C.A. and Campos-Takaki, G.M. 2019. Sustainable biosurfactant produced by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 and its suitability for agricultural and marine bioremediation applications. Microbial Cell Factories, 18(2):1-13.
Astuti, D.I., Purwasena, I.A. and Putri, R.E. 2019. Screening and characterisation of biosurfactant produced by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. G3 and its applicability for enhanced oil recovery. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 9: 2279–2289.
Banat, I.M, Franzetti, A. and Gandolfi, I. 2010. Microbial biosurfactants production, applications and future potential. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 87: 427-444.
Banat, I.M., Satpute, S.K., Cameotra, S.S., Patil, R. and Nyayanit, N.V. 2014. Cost effective technologies and renewable substrates for biosurfactants’ production. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5(697): 1-19.
Benincasa, M. 2007. Rhamnolipid produced from agro industrial wastes enhances hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soil. Current Microbiology, 54: 445–449.
Cameotra, S.S. and Makkar, R.S. 2004. Recent applications of biosurfactants as biological and immunological molecules. Current Opinion Microbiology, 7: 262-266.
Campos, J.M, Stamford, T.M., Sarubbo, L.A., Luna, J.M., Rufino, R.D. and Banat, I.M. 2013. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries. Biotechnology Progress, 29: 1097-1108.
Chakrabarti, and Sneha, 2012. Bacterial Biosurfactant: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Metal Remediation Properties. M. Sc.Thesis, Department of Life sciences. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha. pp 62.
Chandankere, R., Jun, Y., Choi, M.M., Masakorala, K. and Chan, Y. 2013. An efficient biosurfactant-producing and crude-oil emulsifying bacterium Bacillus methylotrophi- cus USTBa isolated from petroleum reservoir. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 74:46:53.
Cunha, C.D., Rosario, M., Rosado, A.S. and Leite, G.F. 2004. Serratia sp. SVGG16: a promising biosurfactant producer isolated from tropical soil during growth with ethanol-blended gasoline. Process Biochemistry, 39: 2277–2282.
Das, P., Mukherjee, S. and Sen, R. 2008. Antimicrobial potential of a lipopeptide biosurfactant derived from a marine Bacillus circulans. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104:1675–1684.
El-Sersy, N.A. 2012. Plackett-Burman design to optimize biosurfactant production by marine Bacillus subtilis N10. Romanian Biotechnological Letter, 17(2): 7049 – 7064.
Foukia E.M., Mostafa, M.A. and Maysa, E.M. 2016. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. Biotechnology Reports, 9: 31–37.
Govindammal, M. and Parthasarathi, R. 2013. Investigation on antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from mangroove ecosystem. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4(1): 230- 232.
Gudina, E.J., Rocha, V., Teixeira, J.A. and Rodrigues, L.R. 2010. Antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties of a biosurfactant isolated from Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei A20. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 50(4): 419–424.
Gudina, E.J., Teixeira, J.A. and Rodrigues, L.R. 2016. Biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with therapeutic applications. Mar Drugs, 14(2): 38-46.
Helmy, Q., Kardena, E., Funamizu, N. and Wisjnuprapto. 2011. Strategies toward commercial scale of biosurfactant production as potential substitute for its chemically counterparts. International Journal of Biotechnology, 12: 66–86.
Ines, M. and Dhouha, G. 2015. Lipopeptide surfactants: Production, recovery and pore forming capacity. Peptides, 71:100–112.
Khire, J.M. 2010. Bacterial biosurfactants, and their role in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). In: Ramkrishna S (ed) Biosurfactants. Landes Bioscience and Springer Science, Business Media, New York. pp. 146–157.
Khopade, A., Biao, R., Lin, X., Mahadik, K., Zhang, I. and Kokare, C. 2012. Production and Stability Studies of Biosurfactant Isolated From Marine Nocardiospris sp. B4. Desalination, 285: 198-204.
Luna, J.M., Rufino, R.D., Campos-Takaki, G.M. and Sarubbo, L.A. 2012. Properties of the biosurfactant produced by Candida sphaerica cultivated in lowcost substrates. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 27: 67–72.
Makkar, R.S., Cameotra, S.S. and Banat, I.M. 2011. Advances in utilization of renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Express, 1:1–19.
Marchant, R. and Banat, I.M. 2012. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation. Trends in Biotechnology, 30: 558–565.
Marchant, R., Funston, S., Uzoigwe, C., Rahman, P.K. and Banat, I.M. 2014. Production of biosurfactants from nonpathogenic bacteria. Biosurfactants: Production and Utilization, Processes, Technologies and Economics, Chap. 5, New York, eds N. (Boca Raton: CRC Press), pp. 73–82.
Mouafo, T.H., Mbawala, A. and Ndjouenkeu, R. 2018. Effect of different carbon sources on biosurfactants production by three strains of Lactobacillus spp. Biomed Research Journal, 18: 1-15.
Mukherjee, S., Das, P. and Sen, R. 2006. Towards commercial production of microbial surfactants. Trends in Biotechnology, 24: 509-515.
Mulligan, C.N. 2005. Environmental applications for biosurfactants. Environmental Pollution, 133:183–198.
Naughton, P.J., Marchant, R., Naughton, V. and Banat, I.M. 2019. Microbial biosurfactants: current trends and applications in agricultural and biomedical industries. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 127: 12-28.
Roongsawang, N., Washio, K. and Morikawa, M. 2011. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12: 141-172.
Ruggeri, C., Franzetti, A., Bestetti, G., Caredda, P., Colla, P.L., Pintus, M., Sergi, S. and Tamburini, E. 2009. Isolation and characterization of surface active compound producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated environments. International Journal of Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 63:936–942.
Sabate, D.C., Carrillo, L. and Audisio, M.C. 2009. Inhibition of paenibacillus larvae and ascosphaera apis by Bacillus subtilis isolated from honey bee gut and honey samples. Research in Microbiology, 160: 193–199.
Sachdev, D.P. and Cameotra, S.S. 2013. Biosurfactants in agriculture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97:1005–1016.
Sang, Y. and Blecha, F. 2008. Antimicrobial peptides and bacteriocins: alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Animal Health Research Review, 9: 227–235.
Sarubbo, L.A., Farias, C.B. and Campos-Takaki, G.M. 2007. Co-Utilization of canola oil and glucose on the production of a surfactant by Candida lipolytica. Current Microbiology, 54: 68-73.
Shavandi, M., Mohebali, G., Haddadi, A., Shakarami, H. and Nuhi, A. 2011. Emulsification potential of a newly isolated biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6. Colloids Surface B Biointerfaces, 82:477–482.
Singh, P. and Cameotra, S.S. 2004. Potential applications of microbial surfactants in biomedical sciences. Trends in Biotechnology, 22: 142-146.
Tambekar, D.H. and Gadakh, P.V. 2013. Biochemical and molecular dectection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria from soil. International Journal of Life Science, Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(1): 204- 211.
Techaoei, S., Lumyong, S., Prathumpai, W., Santiarwarn, D. and Leelapornpisid, P. 2011. Screening characterization and stability of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SCMU106 isolated from soil in Northern Thailand. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4: 340-351.
Thavasi, R., Marchant, R., and Banat, I.M. 2014. Biosurfactant applications in
agriculture, Biosurfactants: Production and Utilization-Processes, Technologies and Eco-nomics, Chap. 15, New York, CRC Press, pp 313–326.
Vijayakumar, S. and Saravanan, V. 2015. Biosurfactants-types, sources and applications. Research Journal of Microbiology, 10(5): 181-192.
Yin, H., Qiang, J., Jia, Y., Ye, J. and Peng, H. 2009. Characteristics of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa S6 isolated from oil-containing wastewater. Process Biochemistry, 44: 302-308.
Yount, N.Y. and Yeaman, M.R. 2013. Peptide antimicrobials: cell wall as a bacterial target. Ann Academic Science, 1277:127–138.
Zhang, L., Somasundaran, P., Singh, S.K., Felse, A.P. and Gross, R.A. 2004. Synthesis and interfacial properties of sophorolipid derivatives. Colloids Surfactants: A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspect, 240: 75–82.