• A. A. SADIQ Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. P.M.B 2146.



Flood, Hydro-climatic variables, Extent, weather


Flood is a seasonal phenomenon which is natural in it hazardous implication and occurs when there is relative high flow over the banks of the streams as a combine consequence of  high recorded data of hydro-climatic related variables in a given geographical area.  Yola North LGA, of Adamawa state had experienced an unprecedented flood in the year 2012 over the past decade which might have been influenced by some hydro-climatic variables and caused devastating effects on lives, properties, farmland and buildings respectively. This study focused on the impact assessment of substantive hydro-climatic variables on 2012 flood event in Yola -North and its environs. The hydro-climatic variables data were obtained from Meteorological station at UBRBDA, Yola for a decade. The amount of rainfall experienced was found to be highest (1085.2mm) in the year 2012 than any other year under consideration (2008-2017) except that of 2016, number of rainy days was highest (81 days) in the year 2012. Similarly, in the month of August in the year 2012 evaporation rate was lowest with about 69 mm than any other month of August in the decade, the annual value of water discharge was highest in the year 2012 over the decade with about 6,340(m3/s), the gauge height was found to be highest with about 7.33 m in the year 2012 and the water level was highest in the month of June, July and September  with the corresponding values of 3.37 m, 3.49 m and 6.58 m compared to similar months in the years of the decade respectively. These increased changes in some hydro-climatic data analyzed might be the fundamental natural factor that causes the unique flooding than any other factor in the year 2012 in the study area and over time posed negative impact on agricultural lands.  Therefore, the study recommends the urgent need to carry out a comprehensive seasonal hydro-climatic data record simulation analysis and variations with a view of taking them as a recipe and strategies of forecasting and predicting the reoccurrence of such phenomenon. The additional meteorological station should be provided by the government agencies in all agricultural zones of the state for adequate and wide range of hydro-climatic data recording for appropriate prediction of weather indices in future.





Adam, R.M., Peck, D.E 2008. Effects of climate change on water resources.

Adebayo, A.A., Oruonye, E.D. 2012. An Assessment of the effects of the 2012 floods in Taraba State, Nigeria. Paper delivered at the Annual National Conference, organized by the Association of Hydrological Science at University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun, state, Nigeria. 2013;13-18.

Adewusi, H.G I990. Combting Water Erosion and FloodinGongola State. Wekly Scope 5 (133) : 10.

Alkasim, A.,Hayatu, A.A., Salihu, M.K. 2018. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature of Yola, North Eastern Nigeria Using Landsat -7 ETM + Satellite Image Energy and Power Engineering, 2018, 10, 449-456 ISSN Online: 1947- 3818. ISSN Print: 1949-243X

Ayoade, J.O 1988. Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources. MacMillan Publishers Ltd. London and Basingstoke.

Constantine, C.M. 2009. Effects of climatic change on water resources: in Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency, Hydroviews, November, 2009.1.(1); 9-15

Etuonovbe, A. K. 2011. “Devastating effect of flooding in Nigeria. FIG Working Week.” Accessed July 10, 2014. http://www.fig. net/pub/fig2011/papers/ts06j/ts06j _etuonovbe_ 5002. pdf.

Festus, J. 2016. Assessment of spatio-temporal changes in land cover in Yola north using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Being a dissertation submitted to department of Geography Adamawa State University Mubi in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Masters of Science (Msc. Hons) degree in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System.

Holmes, J. 2007. Climate change and water resources. In Hydrological Services Agency,;Hydroviews, November, (2009) 1. (1);1-2, 9-15.

Jay A. L. Donald F. S. 1997. Economic impact of flooding on agricultural production in Northeast Central North Dakota. Department of Agricultural Economics North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station North Dakota State University Fargo, North Dakota Pp 1-62

Knapp, B. 1979. Element of Geogrraphical Hydrology. Unwin Hymn Ltd. London.

Mazmuder, S.K 1983. Irrigation Engineering. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company New Delhi. Pp. 210-213.

Mohammed, K. 1999. Historical background; in Adebayo A.A. andTukur A. L. (Eds).Adamawa in Maps, Yola. Department of geography, Federal University of Technology Yola, and ParacletPublishers, Nigeria.

National Bureau of Statistic 2006, Yola Adamawa State, Nigeria.

National population commission of Nigeria, N.P.C. 2006. population and housing figures, Yola http//www.population

Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency: (NIHSA) Annual flood outlook for Nigeria. July, 2016.pp 9-21, 26-35.

Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency:( NIHSA) Annual flood outlook for Nigeria April, (2013).Presented by the Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency on 26th April, 2013.pp 10-26.

Obeta. M.C 2014. Institutional approach to flood disaster management in Nigeria need for a preparedness plan: British Journal of Applied Science & Technology4(33): 4575-4590, 2014 ISSN: 2231-0843

Oyegun, R.O. 2001. Environmental problems of water resources development: Geographical perspective. In Ofomata GEK, Phil-Eze PO, editors; Geographical Perspectives on Environmental Problems and Management in Nigeria. Enugu, Jamoe Enterprises Nig;

Sadiq, A. A. Abdullahi, M., Ardo. A. U. 2019a. Assessment of Post Flood Impact on Farmlands Along River Benue Floodplains of Yola and Environs. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 9 (2) Feb. 2019. 679-691. ISSN 2250-3153

Sadiq A.A, Sulaiman, U. B., Hadi, M 2019b. Assessment of Substantive Causes, Effects and Mitigation Strategies of Flood Scenario in Yola South LGA, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 9 (4) April, 2019.Pp 513-536. ISSN 2250-3153

Sadiq A.A and Tekwa, I.J. 2018. Soil fertility and Management practices in Mubi region. Published by Life-line international printing press,Yola Nigeria. Pp.23-25, ISBN: 978-978-959- 589- 1

Sadiq, A.A Hena, M.K (2018). A review of dominant flood prone areas and extent in Adamawa state, North-eastern part of Nigeria. Paper presented at 2nd Annual Conference theme “ Environmental Science Technology and Security Challenges in Nigeria.” Organized by the college of Environmental science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi held on 21st – 23 rd September, 2018.Pp 1 -18.

Upper Benue River Basin Authority. (2018). Hydrological Year Book of the Upper Benue River Basin Authority, Yola, Nigeria.

USDA 1993. West Virginia erosion and sediment control handbook for developing areas. In USDA. Soil conservation service: Morgant owa, W. V. West Virginia Division Highways (WVDOH) (2000). Standard specifications for roads and bridges, State Government, Charleston, W. V.

Ward, R. C., Robinson 1990. Principles of Hydrology. McGraw Hills Co., Europe ( England) pp.284-286.

Angillieri, M.Y.E. 2007. Morphometric analysis of colanguil river basin and flash flood hazard. Environmental Geology. San Juan, Argentina. 2007; 10:16-22.

Sadiq, A.A., Hena, M.K 2018. A Survey of Dominant Flood Prone Area and Extent in Adamawa State, North-Eastern Part of Nigeria.; in Proceeding of Environmental Science Technology and Security Challenges in Nigeria. November, 2018.Vol. 2:.2 Pp 137-153.

Hassan, S.M., Tokula, A.E. Impact and risk assessment management of flood disasters in Lokoja. Paper delivered at the 5th Annual National Conference of the Nigerian Association of Hydrological Sciences (NAHS) at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2013;31-37.

Integrated Regional Information Networks. 2012. “Nigeria: Worst Floods in Decades.” Integrated Regional Information Networks. Accessed August 10, 2014. Nigeria.